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F I Z. 

1. A Survey of the Conftitutions and Iii- 
jfX terefts of the Empire^ Sueden^ "Den- 
mark^ Spain^ HoUandy France and Flanders^ 
with their Relation to England in the Year 

2 . An Eflay upon the Original and Nature of 

3 . An Eflay upon the Advancement of Trade 
in Ireland. 

4. Upon the Conjundure of Affairs in 06fo- 
kery i<573. 

f . Upon the Excefles of Grief. 
6. An .Eflay upon the Cure of the Gout^ by 

By Sir William Temple ^ Baronet. 

Printed for Jacob Tonfon within Grays-Inn 
Gate next Grays-Inn Lane, and Awnfmm 
and John Churchill at the Black Swan in 
Tater-Nojler-Row. 1 70 f . 

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U P O N T H E 

United Trovinces 

O F T H E 


By Sir William X^mple of Shene 

^ in the County of Surrey^ Baronety 

Amhajfador at the Hague and at 

Aix la-Chapelle> />/ the Tear 1 6 (J 8 , 

The Seventh Edition. 
Correded and Augmented. 


Printed for Jacob Tonfon within GrajS'^Inn 
Gate next Grays-Inn Lane, and Ayjnfham 
and John Chfirchill at the Blacky Swan in 
Pattr^Nofier-Row. 1705* 

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'■^-i^-zu THE 


HAvtng lately feen the State of the 
United Provinces, after a pro- 
dtgiotis Growth in Riches^ Beati- 
tyy Extent of Commerce^ and Number 
of Inhabitants^ arrived at length tofuch 
a height y (by the Strength of their Na- 
vies^ their fortify' d TownSy ayid (land- 
ing-Forces ^ with a conftant Revenue^ 
proportioned to the Support of all this 
Greatnefs^ as made them the Envy of 
fome:, the Fear of others^ and the Won- 
der of all their Neighboms, 

We have^ this Summer paft^ beheld 
the fame State^ in the midft of great 
appearing Safety^ Order ^ Strength^ and 
Vigour^ almoji ruined and broken to 
pieces -i in fome few T>ays^ and by very 
few Blows ; and reduced in a ma?mer 
to its firft Principles of Weaknefs^ and 
A 3 "Dtjirefs^ 

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The Preface. 
"Dijirefsi expos' d, opfrefs'd, and very near 
at Mercy. Their Inland Provinces fwaU 
low'd up by an Inva/ion, almoft as fud- 
den, and unrejifted, as the Inundations 
to which the others are fubjedi. And 
the Remainders of their State rather 
kept alive by NegleSty . or T>ifcQncert of 
it's Enemies y than by^, any Strength of 
Nature^ or Endeavours at its own Re- 

Now, becaufe fuch a Greatnefs an4 
fuch a Fall of this State, feem Revolnr 
tions unparallel'd in any. . StQxy^ and, 
hardly conceiv'd, even by, thofe.. who, 
have lately feen them-, 1 thought it 
might be worth an idle, Man's time, to 
give fome Account of the Rife, and Tro- 
grefs of this Commonwealth, The Caufe,s 
of their Greatnefs-, And the Steps to^ 
wards their Fall :^ Which were 41 mad^ 
by Motions, perhaps, little taken. Ko. 
tice of by common Eyes, and almoft uur 
difcernable-to any Man, that was , not 
placed to the befi Advantage^, and fome- 
thing concerned, as well as much en^ 
clin'd^ to obferve them. 

The, ufual .T>uty of Employments a- 
broad, impofed not only by Cuftom, but 
by Orders of State, , made ft. fit for me 
to prepare fome formal Account of this 


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The Ftefecd. 

Q&wntry and Goverrment^ after Twd 
Tears Embajjyy in the mtdli of great 
Cmjun£fures and Negotiatibns among 
them. And fUch a Re^volution as has 
fince happened there ^ though it may have 
made the[e T^ifcoutfes little important 
to His Majejiyy or His Council ^ yet it 
will not have rendered them lefs agreea- 
ble to common Eyes^ who^ like Men that 
live near the Sea^ will run out upon the 
Cliffs to gaze at it in a Stormy though 
they would not look out of their Win- 
dows^ to fee it in a Calm. 

Befdes^ at a Time when the Anions 
of this Scene take up-^ f& generally^ the 
Eyes and T>ifcourfes of their Neigh- 
bours; and the Maps of their Country 
grow fo much in requejl : I thought a 
Map of their State and Government 
would not be uriwelcome to the Worlds 
fince it is fill as neceffary as the others^ 
to under fland the late Revolutions^ and 
Changes among them. And as no Maris 
Story can be well written ^ till he is dead; 
fo the Account of this St0Lte could not be 
well given ^till its Fall^ which may 
juflly be "Dated from the Events of loft 
Summer*, (whatever Forttmes fnay fur- 
ther attend them^ ffice therein we 
have feen the fudden and violent ^iffo- 
A 4, lutif» 

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The Preface. 

lution of that more Topular Govern^ 
ment^ which had conttnud^ and made 
fo much Noife^ for above Twenty Tears ^ 
in the Worlds without the Epcercifcy or 
Influence^ of the Authority of the Trin- 
ces of Orange, a Tart fo Effential in 
the firfi Confiitutions of their State. 
Nor can I wholly lofe my Tains in this 
Adventure^ when I pall gain the Eafe 
of Anfwering this way^ at onccy thofe 
many ^eflions I have lately been ufed 
to^ upon this Occafion: Which made 
me firfi obferve^ and wonder ^ how igno- 
rant we were^ generally^ in the Affairs 
and Confiitutions of a Country ^ fo much 
in our Eye^ the common Road of our 
Travels^ as well as Subje6i of our Talk^ 
and which we have been of late ^ not on- 
ly curiom^ but concern^d-^ to know. 

I am very fenfible^ how ill a Trade it 
is to wrtte^ where much is ventufd^ and 
little ca7i be gained ; fince whoever does 
it Hits fure of Co?itempt ^ and the jufi- 
liefi that can be^ when no Man provokes 
him to difcover his own Follies.^ or to 
trouble the M^orld: If he writes well:, he 
raifes the Envy of thofe Wits that are 
poffefs'd of the Vogue y and are jealous 
of their Preferment there., as if it were 
in LovCy or in State j and have founds 


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The Preface. 

that the near eft way to their own Repu- 
tation liesy right or wrongs by the 2)^- 
ri/ion of other Men. But^ however^ I 
am not in Tain^ for 'tis the Affectation 
of Traife^ that makes the Fear of Re- 
proach y and I write without other 1)e- 
fgn than of entertaining very idle Meny 
andy among them^ my felf For 1 mtift 
confefsj that being wholly ufelefs to the 
^ublick J and unacquainted with the 
Cares of encreafing Riches^ (which bufie 
the World :^ Being grown cold to the 
^leafures of younger or livelier Me72 s 
and having ended the Entertaimnents of 
Building and Tlanting^ (which ufe to 
fucceed them-,^ finding little Tafte in 
common Converfationy and TroiMe in 
much Readings from the Care of my 
Eyesy (fince an lUnefs contracted by 
many unneceffary "Diligences in my Em- 
ployments abroad i) there can hardly be 
found an idler Man than I \ nor confe- 
quently^ one more excufable for givi?2g 
way to fuch Amufements as this : Hav- 
ing nothing to do^ but to enjoy the Eafe 
of a private Life and Fortune ; which ^ 
as I know no Man envies^ fo (I thank 
God^ no Man can reproach, 

I am not ignorant ^ that the Vein of 
Reading never ran lower than in this 

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The Preface. 

Age i arid feldom goes farther than the 
^ejtgn ofraijing a Stock ta ft4fnifh]fome 
Callings or Cornjerfatio^. The Dejire of 
Knowledge being either laugh' d out of 
lyoors, by the Wit that pleafes theAge^ 
or beaten out by Intereft that fo much 
foffeffes it : And the Aniufement of 
Booksy giving' way to the Liberties or 
Refinements of Tleafurey that were far- 
nierly lefs knowuy or lefs a^uowedy than 
noiv. Tet fome there will al'Ways be 
found in the JVorldy who ask n0 more at 
their idle HourSy than to forget them^ 
felves, Andy whether that be brought 
aboM by "Drink or Tlajy by Love or Bu- 
finefs^ or by fome Diverfionsy as idle as 
this J 'tis all a cafe, 

Befidesy it may poffMy fall outy at 
me time or other y that fome Trineey or 
great Miniftery may ndt be ill fj leas'" d 
tn thefe kind of Memorials y {ttpon puch 
a Si^bie^f,) to trace the Jiefs of Trade 
and Richesy of Order and Tower in a 
State^ and thofe likewife of weaky or 
violent Counfels i of corrupt^ or illy Con- 
duct ^ of FaBion or Obfiinacy^ which 
decay and dijfolve the firmeft Govern- 
ments: That foy by Reflexions upn Fo- 
reign Events y^ they may provide the bet- 
ter and the earlier againfi^ thofe at 


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The Preface. 

hon^e^ and raije their own Honour ^ and' 
Happinefs^ bj equal degrees with the 
^rofpefity and Safety of the Nat ions 
they govern. 

Fory under favour ofthofe who Wi mid 
pap for Wits in our Age^ by facing 
things^ which David teUs uiy the Fool 
faid in0i's: And.fet ttp^' w/ith' bringing 
thofe Wafelto']^ 

knows') hdvebeend the fVofl^^* 

though kepi up incbrWrsy becduf^t'hef 
m*d to mark their' ^^wners^^ iri forfHei^ 
yfges^ with the NaM'es of Buffoons, 
Prophane, or Imptit^erit, Men^ wha 
deride all Fo^nt and: OVd^r^ as well a^ 
Tiety and Truth's dnd^ under the No- 
tion of Fopperies^ ended^wur to diffolve 
the very Bonds of all €ivil Society *, 
though by the favour and Trote£iion 
thereof they theMfelves ^etijoy fo much 
greater Proportions of fVealih^ and of 
"J^leafures^ than iJoouldfitU to their JBar^^ 
if all lay^ in cdTpHion^ as the) fevm to 

4^M^> Cf^\ ^^^^^ f^^^ '^ojfeffions would 
Ulong of right to the flrciigefi and brdv- 
eji among us.) 

^. Under fdvoUr of fuch h^n^ I believe 
^f^mi^l.^^^foundy at me tiffie or other y 
by all whbjhall ny^ That whiljl Buman 
rsldture continues wlo'dt ftWj The fame 


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i The Preface, 

Order^f in State^ The fame T^tfeipline im 
Armi^\s^ The fame Reverence for things 
Sacre\l, And RefpeB of Civil Inftituti- 
ons^ The fame Virtues and T>ifpoftions 
of T\rmces and Magiftrates^ derived by 
Inter eft ^ or Imitation^ into the Cuftoms 
and Humours of the Teople^ will ever 
have the fame EffeBs upon the Strength 
and Greatnefs of all Government Sy and 
upon the Honour and Authority of thofe 
that Rtile^ as well as the Happinefs and 
Safety of thofe that obey. 

Nor are we to think Trinces them- 
felves Lofersy or lefs entertained^ when 
we fee them employ their Time^ and 
their Thought s^ in fo ufeful Speculati- 
ons ^ andtofo Gloriom Ends: But that 
rather^ thereby they attain their true 
"Prerogative of being Happier y as well 
as Greater^ than Subjects can be. For 
all the Pleafures of Senfe^ that any 
Man can enjoy y are within the reach 
of a private Fortune^ aiid ordinary 
Contrivance^ Grow fainter with AgCy 
and duller with Ufe, Muft be revived 
with Intermiffwns^ and wait upon the 
returns of Appetite^ which are no more 
at Call of the Rich^ tha?i the Toor. 
The Flafhes of Wit and good Humour ^ 
that rife from the Vapours of Wtne^ 


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The Preface. 

me little different from thofe^ that pro- 
€eei jrom the heats of Blood nn the firfi 
jipprvdches of Fcversy or Frenzies ; and 
sre to be valued^ but as Qndeed') they 
sre^ the Effe^s of Titftemper, But the 
^leafures of Imagination^ as they heigh- 
ten and refne the very Tleafttves of Senfe^ 
fo they are of larger Extent^ and long- 
er duration. Jnd if the mojl fenfual 
Man will confefs there is a Tleafure in 
T'leafng^ He muft like wife allow y there 
is Good to a Maris Self in doing Good 
to others-. And the further this extends 
the higher it rifes^ and the longer it 
iafls. Befides^ there is Beauty in Or- 
der % and there are Charms in well-de- 
ferved Traife : And both are the great - 
£r^ by how much greater the Subject -y 
As the firft appearing in a wellframed 
^nd well-governed State j And the other 
^arifing from Noble and Generous A^li- 
vns. Nor can any Veins of good Hu- 
mour be greater than thofe^ that fwell 
hy the Succefs of ^ife Cotmfels^ and by 
the fortunate Events ofpublick Affair si 
fince a Man that takes fleafure in doing 
good to Ten Thoufand^ muft needs have 
more^ than he that takes none^ but in 
doing Good to Himfelf 


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The Preface- 

]^ui i\hefe^ Thoughts lead me too fdt^ 
mid foiHttle purj)ofe: Therefore I pall 
leave t him for thofe Ihadfrji in my 
Head^ ameer ning the State of the tJnu 
ted-Prov inces. 

And ^v here as the Greatnefs of their 
Strength y, and Revenues^ grew, out of the 
Vafinefs of their Trade ^ into which theit 
Religion^ jtheir Manners^ and "Difpofi^ 
rions^ their Situation, and the Form of 

their, Qi^^vernment^ were the chief Ingre- 
dients. And this laft had been raifedy 

,, partly upon an old Foundationy and 
partly mjth Materials brought together 
by many, md, various Accident si it wilt 
be nece^faryfor the Survey of this great 
Frame^ to give fome Account of the Rife 

> and Trogrefs of their ^tatcy by pointing 

j:Out.t/:}e.moft. remarkable Occajtons of the 
firjly and 'Periods of the other. To di- 
f cover the Nature and Confiitutions of 
their Government in its fever al "Tarts^ 

. and the_ Motions of ity from the fir [I 

rund fmalleft TVheels. To obfervcy what 
is peculiar to them tn their Situation^ or 
T>ifpofitions : . And what in their Reli^ 

. gion. To take a Survey of their Trade ^ 
0.nd the Calf es of it : Of the Forces and 
Revenues^ which compofed their Great- 
nefs : 

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The Preface, 

7iefs : And the Circumjiancesy and Con- 
ju^Bwes^ ijjvkifh fonfpir^d to their Fall. 
And thefe are the Heads ^ that Jhall 
make the Order and Arguments in the 
fiver al Tarts of thefe Olfervations, 


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CHap. L Of the Rife and Trogrefs 
of their State. 

Chap. IL Of their Government. 

Chap. III. Of their Situation, 

Chap. IV. Of their Teopky and T) if- 

Chap. V. Of their Religion, 

Chap. VI. Of their Trade. 

Chap. VIL Of their Forces^ and Re^ 


Chap. VIIL Of the Caufes of their Fall 
in 1672. 


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[ ■ ] 


of the Rife and Progrefs of the 
United Provinces. 

WHocver will take a View 
of the Rife of this Com- 
monwealth^ muft trace 
it up as high as the 
iirfl: Commotions in the Seventeen 
Provinces ^ under the Dutchefs of 
Tarma's Government 5 and the true 
Caufes of that more avowed and 
general Revolt in the Duke of 
Alva's time. And, to find out the 
Natural Springs of thofe Revolutions, 
muft refle£t upon that fort of Govern- 
ment under which the Inhabitants of 
thofe Provinces lived for fo many 
Ages paft, in the Subjedlion of their 
feveral Dukes or Counts, 'till by Mar- 
riages, Succeflions or Conqueft, they 
came to be united in the Houfe of 
Burgundy y under Philip Sirnamed The 
Good : And afterwards in that of Au^ 
Jiriay under Thilip Father of Charles 

B in 

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The Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

in the Pcrfon of that great Emperor 
incorporated with thofe vaft Domini- 
ons of Germany and Spain^ Italy and 
the Indies. 

Nor will it be from the Purpofe up- 
on this Search, to run a little higher 
into the Antiquities of thefe Countries : 
For though moft Men are contented 
only to fee a River as \t runs by them, 
and talk of the Changes in it, as they 
happen 3 when ^tis troubled, or when 
clear ^ when it drowns the Country 
in a Flood, or forfakes it in a Drowth : 
Yet he that would know the Nature 
of the Water, and the Caufes of thofe 
Accidents, (fo as to guefs at their 
Continuance or Return) muft find out 
its Source, and obferve with what 
Strength it rifes, what Length it runs, 
and how many fmall Streams fall in, 
^nd feed it to fuch a Height, as make 
it either delightful or terrible to the Eye, 
and ufeful or dangerous to the Country 
about it. 

The Numbers and Fury of the Nor- 
thern Nations, under many different 
Names, having by feveral Inundations 
broken down the whole frame of the 
Roman Empire, extended in their Pro- 
vinces as far as the Rhine ^^ either gave 


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chap- L of the United Provinces. 

a birth, or made way for the fcveral King- 
doms and Principalities, that have fince 
condnu'd in the Parts of Europe on 
this fide that River, which made the 
ancient Limits of the Gallick and Ger- 
man Nations, The Trait of Land, which 
we ufually call the Low-Countries^ was 
fo wafted by the Invafions or Marches 
of this raging People, (yho pafs'd by 
them to greater Conquefts} that the 
Inhabitants grew thin > and being fe- 
cure of nothing they poflefs'd, fell to 
feek the Support of their Lives, rather 
by Hunting, or by Violence, than by 
Labour and Induftry ^ and thereby the 
Grounds came to be uncultivated, and 
in the courfe of Years turned either to 
Fpreft, or Marflies 5 which are the two 
natural Soils of all defolated Lands in 
the more temperate Regions. For by 
foaking of frequent Showers, and the 
courfe of Waters from the higher into 
lower Grounds, when there is no Ifluc 
that helps them to break out into a 
Channel, the flat Land grows to be a 
mixture of Earth and Water, and nei- 
ther of common ufe nor paflage to Man 
or Beafts, which is calPd a Marfti. The 
higher, and fo the drier, Parts, moiften'd 
by the Rain, and warmed by the Sun, 
B 7 fhooc 

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The Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

flioot forth fome forts of Plants, as na- 
turally as Bodies do fomc fort of Hair, 
which, being preferv'd by theDefolate- 
nefs of a Place untrodden, as well as 
untiird, grow to fuch Trees or Shrubs 
as are natural to the Soil, and thofe in 
time producing both Food and Shelter 
for fcveral kind of Beafts, make the fort 
of Country we call a Foreji. 

And fuch was Flanders for many 
Years before Charlemaign's^ time, when 
the Power of the Francs^ having raised 
and efl:ablifh*d a great Kingdom of their 
own, upon the entire Conqueft o^Gaul^ 
began to reduce the Diforders of that 
Country to the form of a Civil, or (jit 
leaft) Military Government ^ to make 
Diviiions and Diftributions of Lands and 
Jurifdiftions , by the Bounty of the 
Prince, or the Services of his chief Fol- 
lowers and Commanders : To one of 
whom a great Extent of this Land was 
^iven, with the Title of Fc^r^^fr of Flan- 
ders: This Office continuM for fevcral 
Defcents,and began to civilize the Coun- 
try, by reprefling the Violence of Rob- 
bers and Spoilers , who infefted the 
Woody and Faft Places, and by encou- 
raging the milder People to fall into 
Civil Societies, to truft to their Indu- 


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Cliap- L of the United Provinces. 

ftry for Subfiftence, to Laws for Pro* 
teftion, and to their Arms united under 
the Care and Conduit of their Gover- 
nors, for Safety and Defence. 

In the time of Charlemaigriy as fome 
write j or, as others, in that of Charles 
the Baldy Flanders v/2ls erefted into a 
County, which changed the Title of 
Forejier for that of County without in- 
terrupting the Succeilion, 

What the Extent of this County 
was at iirft, or how far the Jurifdiftion 
of Forejiers reached, I cannot affirm j 
nor whether it only bordered upon, or 
included, the lower Parts of the vaft 
Woods of Ardenne^, which, in Charle-- 
maign's time, was all Foreft as high as 
Atx^ and the rough Country for Ibmc 
Leagues beyond it, and was usM com- 
monly by that Emperor for his Hunt- 
ing: This appears by the ancient Re- 
cords of that City, which attribute the 
Difcovery, or, at leafc, retrieving the 
knowledge of thofe hot Baths, to the 
Fortune of that Prince, while he was 
Hunting: For his Horfe poching one 
of his Legs into fome hollow Ground, 
made way for the fmoaking Water to 
break out, and gave occafion for the 
Emperor's building that City, and ma- 
B 3 king 

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7he Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

king it his ufual Seat, and the Place of 
Coronation for the following Empe- 

Holland^ being an Ifland made by the 
dividing Branches of the ancient Rhtne^ 
and caird iotmtiX^ Bat avia^ wasefteem- 
ed rather a Part of Germany than GauU 
(^between which it was feated} in re- 
gard of its being planted by the Catt'h 
a great, and ancient People o^ Germany ^^ 
and was treated by the Romans rather 
as an Allied than a Subjeded Province^ 
who drew from thence no other Tribute 
befides Bands of Soldiers, much efteem- 
cd for their Valour, and joined as Auxi- 
haries to their Legions in their Gallicky 
German^ and Britijh Wars. 

'Tis probable, this Ifland changed in a 
great meafure Inhabitants and Cuftoms, 
as well as Names, upon the Inroads of 
the barbarous Nations, but chiefly of 
the Normans and "Danes^ from whofe 
Countries and Language the Names of 
Hol-hmd and Zealand feem to be derived. 
But atout the Year 860, a Son of 
the Count of Frize^ by a Daughter of 
the Emperor Lewis the Second, was by 
him inftituted Count oi Holland^ and 
gave Beginning to that Title ^ which, 
running fince that time through fo many 


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chap. 1 of the United Provinces. 

direft or collateral Succellions and fome 
Ufurpations, came to an end at laft in 
Thiiip the Second, King of Spain^ by 
the Defedion of the Untied Provinces. 
Under thefe dt&i Forejiers zndCounts^ 
who began to take thofe wafted Coun- 
tries and mixed People into their Care, 
and to intend the Growth, Strength, 
and Riches of their Subje6ts> which they 
efteemed to be their own : Many old 
and demolifh'd Caftles were re-built, 
many new ones erected, and given by 
the Princes to thofe of their Subjefts 
or Friends, whom they moft lov'd or 
efteem*dj with large Circuits of Lands 
for their Support, and Seigneurial Jurif- 
diition over the Inhabitants. And this 
upon feveral eafie Conditions>but chiefly 
of Attendance on their Prince at the 
necelTary times of either honouring him 
in Peace, or ferving him in War. Nay 
poilibly, fome of thefe Seigneuries and 
their Jurifdiftions, may, as they pretend, 
have been the Remains of fome old 
Principalities in thofe Countries among 
the Gallick and German Nations, the 
firft Inftitutions whereof were loft in 
the Immenfity of Time that preceded the 
Roman Difcoveries or Conqueft, ^}^^ 
might be derived perhaps from the iirft 
B 4 Pater^ 

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7he Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

Paternal Dominion, or Concurrence of 
loofe People into orderly Neighbour- 
hoods, withaDeference, if notSubjefti- 
on, to the wifeil or braveft among them. 

Under the fame Counts were either 
founded or reftored many Cities and 
Towns -, of which the old had their 
ancient Freedoms and Jurifdiftions con- 
firmed, or others annexed J and the New 
had either the fame granted to them by- 
example of the others, or great Immu- 
nities and Privileges for the Encourage- 
ment of Inhabitants to come and peo- 
ple in them : All thefe Conftitutions a- 
greeing much in Subftance perhaps by 
Imitation, or elfe by the agreeing Na- 
ture of the People, for whom, or by 
whom, they were framed, but differing 
in Form according to the difference of 
their Original, or the feveral Natures, 
Cuftoms and Interefts of the Princes, 
whofe Concellions many of them were, 
and all their Fermiffions. 

Another Conftitution which entred 
deep into their Government, may be 
denv'd from another Source. For thofe 
Northern Nations, whofe unknown Lan- 
guage and Countries perhaps made 
theni be calPd Bar barons^ (though indeed 
almoft all Nations out of Italy and 


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chap. I. of the United Provinces. p 

Greece were ft y led fo by the Romans^ 
but whofe Viftories in obtaining new 
Seats, and Orders in pofTejffing them, 
might make us allow them for a better 
policy'd People, than they appeared by 
the Vaftnefs of their Multitude, or the 
Rage of their Battels. 

Wherever they pafs'd, and feated their 
Colonies and Dominions, they left a 
Conftitution which has Jiince been cal- 
led, in moft European Languages, The 
States i confifting of Three Orders, 
Nobky Ecdejiafitcah and Topilar^ un- 
der the limited Principality of One 
Pcrfon, with the Style of King^ Trince^ 
T)uke^ or Count. The Remainders, at 
leaft, or Traces hereof, appear ftill ii\ 
all the Principalities founded by thofe 
People in Italy^, France and Spain ^y and 
were of a piece with the prefent Con- 
ftitutions in moft of the great Domini- 
ons on t'other fide of the Rhine: And 
it feems to have been a Temper firft 
introduced by them between the Tyran- 
ny of the Eaftern Kingdoms, and the 
Liberty of the Grecian ot Roman Com- 

'Tis true, the Goths were Gentiles 
when they firft broke into the Roman 
Empire, 'till one great fwarm of this 


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10 The Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

People, upon Treaty with one of the 
Roman Emperors, and upon Conceili- 
ons of a great Trad of Land to be a 
Seat for their Nation, embraced at 
once the Chriftian Faith. After which, 
the fame People breaking out of the Li- 
mits had been allowed them, and by 
freih Numbers bearing all down where 
they bent their March > as they were a 
great means of propagating Religion in 
many Parts of Europe where they ex- 
tended their Conquefts > fo the Zeal of 
thefe new Profelytes, warmed by the 
Veneration they had for their Bi(hops 
and Paftors, and enriched by the Spoils 
and Pofleflions of fo vaft Countries, 
feem to have been the Firft that in- 
troduced the Maintenance of the Chur- 
ches and Clergy, by Endowments of 
Lands, Lordfliips, and Vaflals, appro- 
priated to them : For before this time 
the Authority of the Priefthood in all 
Religions feem'd wholly to confift in 
the Peoples Opinion of their Piety, 
Learning, or Virtues, or a Reverence 
for their Charadtcr and Myftical Cere- 
monies and Inftitutiong) their Support, 
or their Revenues, in the voluntary 
Oblations of pious Men, the Bounty 
of Princes, or in a certain fharc out 


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Chap. L of the United Provinces. 

of the Labours and Gains of thofe who 
liv'd under their Cure, and not in any 
Subjeftion of Mens Lives or Fortunesj 
which belonged, wholly to the Civil 
Power : And Ammmtamts^ though he 
taxes the Luxury of the Bifhops m Va- 
lentinian's time, yet he fpeaks of their 
Riches, which occafioned or fomented 
it, as arifing wholly from the Oblations 
of the People. But the Devotion of 
thefe new Chriftians introducing this 
new form of endowing their Churches j 
and afterwards Tepin and Charlemaign 
King of the Francs^ upon their Vifto- 
ries in Italy ^ and the favour of the Ro- 
man Bifliop to their Title apd Arms, 
having annexed great Territories and 
Jurifdiftions to that See : This Exam- 
ple, or Cuftom, was followed by moft 
Princes of the Northern Races through 
the reft of Europe^ and brought into 
the Clergy great Poflellions of Lands, 
and by a neceflary Confequence a great 
(hare of a Temporal Power, from the de-» 
pendances of their Subjeds or Tenants-, 
by which means they came to be gene- 
rally One of the 1 hree Orders that 
composed the Aflembly of the States in 
every Country. 

This Conftitution of the States had 


1 1 

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The Rife afid Progrefs Chap. L 

been eftabliflVd from time immemorial 
in the feveral Provinces of the Low- 
Countries^ and was often afiembled for 
determining Difputes about Succeflion 
of their Princes, where doubtful or 
contefted y For deciding thofe between 
the great Towns ^ For raifing a Mihce 
for the Defence of their Countries in 
the Wars of their Neighbours j For Ad- 
vice in time of Dangers abroad, or 
Difcontents at home> But always up- 
on the new Succeflion of a Prince, and 
upon any new Impofitions that were 
ncceflary on the People. The Ufe of 
this Allembly was another of thofe 
Liberties, whereof the Inhabitants of 
thefe Provinces were fo fond and fo 
tenacious. The reft, befidcs thofe an- 
cient Privileges already mentioned of 
their Towns, were Concefllons and Gra- 
ces of feveral Princes •, in particular, 
Exemptions or Immunities, Jurifdiftion 
both in Choice and Excrcife of Magi- 
llracy and Civil Judicature within 
thcmfelvess or elfe in the Cuftoms of 
uling none but Natives in Charges and 
Offices, and pafllng all weighty Affairs 
by the great Council compofed of the 
great Lords of the Country, who were 
in a manner all Temporal, there being 


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chap. I- of the United Provinces. 1 5 

but Three Bifliops in all the Seventeen 
Provinces, ''till the Time of Thilip the 
Second of Spain. 

The Revenues of thcfe Princes con- 
fided in their ancient Demefnes, in fmall 
Cuftoms, (which yet grew confiderable 
by the grcatnefs of l>ade in the Ma- 
ritime lowns,} and in the voluntary 
Coiitributions of their Subjefts, cither 
in the States or in particular Cities, 
according to the Necellities of their 
Prince, or the Affeftions of the People. 
Nor were thcfe frequent ^ for the For- 
ces of thefc Counts were composed of 
fuch Lords, who either by their Go- 
vernments, or other Offices, or by the 
Tenure of their Lands, were oblig'd to 
attend their Prince on Horfcback, with 
certain Numbers of Men, upon all his 
V/ars : Or elfe of a Milice, which was 
c^ilVd Les gens d' ordonnance^ who fer- 
ved on foot, and were not unlike our 
Train-bands J the Ufe, or at leafl: Style 
whereof, was renewed in Flanders up- 
on the laft War with France m 166/^ 
when the Count Egmont was made by 
the Governor, General de gens d' or don- 

Thefe Forces were defrayed by the 
Cities or Countries, as the others were 


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i 4 the Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

raifed by the Lords when occafion re- 
quired J and all were licenfed immedi- 
ately when it was pad, fo that they 
were of little Charge to the Prince. 
His Wars were but with other Princes 
of his own Size, or Competitors to his 
Principality ; or fometimes with the 
Munities of his great Towns > fliort^ 
though violent 3 and decided by one 
Battel or Siege > unlefs they fell into the 
Quarrels between England and France^ 
and then they were engaged but in the 
Skirts of the War, the grofs of it being 
waged between the two Kings, and theie 
fmaller Princes made ufe of for the 
Credit of Alliance, or fometimes the 
Commodioufnefs of a Diverlion, rather 
than for any great Weight they made 
in the Main of the Affair. 

The moft frequent Wars of the 
Counts of Holland were with the Fri- 
zons^ a Part of the old Saxons s and the 
fierceft Battels of fome of the Counts 
of Flanders were with the Normans^ 
who pafs'd that way into France^ and 
were the laft of thofe Nations that have 
infefted the more Southern Parts o^ Eu- 
rope. I have fometimes thought, how 
it fhould have come to pafs, that the 
infinite Swarm of that vaft Northern- 

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chap. I. of the United Provinces. 1 5 

Hive, which fo often fliook the World 
like a great Tempeft, and overflowed 
ic like a Torrent 3 changing Names^ 
and Cuftoms^ and Government, and 
Language, and the very face of Na- 
ture, wherever they feated themfelves; 
which upon Record of Story, under the 
Name of Gauls^ pierc'd into Greece and 
Italj'i facking Rome^ and befieging the 
Capitol in CamiUus his time > under 
that of the CimberSy march'd through 
France^ to the very Confines of Italy y 
defended by Marius ; under that of 
Hunns or Lombards^ Vifigoths^ Goths ^ 
and Vdndals^ conquered the whole For- 
ces of the Roman Empire, fackt Rome 
thrice in a fmall compafs of Years, feat- 
ed Three Kingdoms in Sfain and Afrtck^ 
as well as Lombardy ^ and under that 
oiT^anes or Normans <^ poilefs'd them- 
{clvcsoi England^ a^rcatpartof France^ 
and even of Naples and Sicily, How 
(I fay} thefe Nations, which feem'd to 
fpawn in every Age, and at fome Inter- 
vals of Time difcharged their own 
native Countries of fo vaft Numbers, 
and with fuch Terror to the World, 
fhould, about Seven or Eight Hundred 
Years ago, leave off the ufe of thefe 
furious Expeditions, as if on a fudden 


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I (j The Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

they fhould have grown barren 3 or 
tame, or better contented with their 
own ill Climates. But I fuppofe, we 
owe this benefit wholly to the Growth 
and Progrels of Chriftianity in the North, 
by which early and undiftinguifh'd Co- 
pulation, or multitude of Wives, were 
cither reftrain'd or abrogated: By the 
fame means Learning and Civility got 
footing among them in fome degree, 
and enclofed certain Circuits of thofe 
vaft Regions, by the diftindions and 
bounds of Kingdoms, Principalities, or 
Commonalties. Men began to leave 
their wilder Lives, fpent without other 
Cares or Pleafurcs, than of Food, or 
of Luftj and betook themfelves to the 
Eafe and Entertainment of Societies: 
With Order and Labour, Riches be- 
gan, and Trade followed > and thefe 
made way for Luxury, and that for 
many Difeafes or ill Habits of Body, 
which, unknown to the former and 
fimpler Ages, began to fhorten and 
weaken both Life and Procreation. Be- 
fides, the Divifions and Circles of Do- 
minion occafion'd Wars between the 
feveral Nations, though of one Faith 5 
and thofe of the!P^/(?j, Hungarians^ and 
Mttfcovttes^ with the Turks or Tartars^ 


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chap. I. of the United Provinces. 1 7 

made greater Slaughters 5 and by thefe 
Accidents 1 fuppofc the Numbers of 
thofe fertile Broods have been leflen'd, 
and their Limits in a meafure confined > 
and we have had thereby, for lo long 
together in thefe parts of the World, 
the Honour and Liberty of drawing our 
own Blood, upon the Quarrels of Hu- 
mour or Avarice, Ambition or Pride, 
without the Affiftance, or Need, of any 
barbarous Nations to deftroy us. 

But to end this Digreffion, and re- 
turn to the LoW'Countries^ where the 
Government laftcd, in the form and 
manner defcribed, (tho' in feveral Prin- 
cipalities,) 'till ThiltJ) oi Burgundy^ in 
whom all the Seventeen Provinces came 
to be united. 

By this great Extent of a populous 
Country, and the mighty Growth of 
Trade in Bruges^ Gant^ and Antwerp^ 
attributed by Comines to the Goodnefs 
of the princes, and Eafe and Safety of 
the People 3 both Thilip^ and his Son 
Charles the Hardy:, found themfelves a 
Match for France^ then much weakened, 
as well by the late Wars of England^ 
as the Faftions of their Princes. And 
in the Wars ^\i\\France^ wastheHoufe 
of Burgundy^ under Charles and Maxt- 
C miltan 

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I 8 The Rife and Progrefs Chap.L 

miUan of Attftria^ (^who Married his 
Daughter 2X\A Heir} and afterwards un- 
der C/^^7:r/^j- the Fifths their Grand-child^ 
aimoft conftantly engag'd^ the Courfe, 
SuccefleSj and Revolutions whercot are 
commonly known. 

"Philip of Burgundy^ who began them, 
was a good and wife Prince, lov'd by 
his Subjefej and eftecmcd, by his Ene- 
mies^ and took his Meafures fo well, 
that upon the declining of the Englijh 
Greatnefs abroad, by their DilTentions 
at Home, he ended his Quarrels in 
France^ by a Peace, with Safety and 
Honour ^ fo that he took no Pretence 
from his Greatnefs, or his Wars, to 
change any thing in the Forms of his 
Government: *But Charles the Hardy 
engaged more raOily againft France^ and 
the Switzers^ began to ask greater and 
frequent Contributions of his Subjefts > 
which, gain'd at firft by the Credit of 
his Father's Government and his own 
great Defigns, but fpcnt in an unfortu- 
nate War, made his People difcontcnt- 
ed, and him difefteemed, 'till he ended 
an unhappy Life, by an untimely Death, 
in the Battel of Nancy, 

In the time of Maximilian^ fever al 
GermanTiiOO^s were brought down into 


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chap. I. of the United Provinces. 1 9 

Flanders y for their Defence agafnft 
France ; and in that of Charles the 
Fifth) much greater Forces of Spani- 
ards and Italians^ upon the fame occa- 
lion j a thing unknown to the Low-coun- 
try -men in the time of their former Prin- 
ces. But through the whole courfe of 
this Emperor's Reign, who was com- 
monly on the fortunate hand, hisGreat- 
nefs and Fame encreafing together, ei- 
ther diverted or fuppreiled any Difcon- 
tents of his Subje6l:s upon the increafe 
of their Payments, or the grievance of 
fo many Foreign Troops among them. 
Beiides, Charles was of a gentle and a 
generous Nature 5 and, being born in 
the LoW'CotmtrieSy was naturally kind 
and eaiie to that People, whofeCuftoms 
and Language he always ufed when he 
was among them, and employed all their 
great Men in the Charges of his Court, 
his Government, or his Armies, through 
the fcveral parts of his vaft Dommions > 
to that upon the laft great Aftion of his 
Life, which was the Kefignation of his 
Crowns to his Son and Brother, he left 
to Thilip the Second, the Seventeen 
Provinces, in a Condition as Peaceable, 
and as Loyal, as either Prince or Sub- 

jects could defire. 

C 2 Thi^ 

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2-0 The Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

Thilij? the Second^ coming to the 
Pofleflion of fo many and great Do- 
minions, about the Year ifj6j after 
fome Trial of good and ill Fortune in 
the War with France^ (which was left 
him by his Father, like an Encumbrance 
upon a great Eftate,} rcftor'dj by the 
Peace of Cambrey^ not only the Quiet 
of his own Countries^ but in a man- 
ner of all Chriftendom, which was in 
fome degree or other engjg'd in the 
Quarrel of thefe Princes. After this, he 
refolv'd to return into Spair^ and leave 
the Low -Countries under a fubordinate 
the Fifth's time the conftant Seat of 
their Prmces, and (liar'd the Prefence 
of that great Emperor with the reft of 
his Dommions. , But Thiltp'y a Spaniard 
born, retaining, from the Climate orE- 
duration of that Country, the Severe- 
nefs and Gravity of the Nation, which 
the Flemings callM Refervednefs and 
Pride ^ conferring the Offices of his 
Houfc, and the Honour of his Coun- 
cil and Confidence, upon Spaniards'^ 
and thereby introducing their Cuftoms, 
Habits, and Language into the Court 
o^ Flanders y, after the Peace^ 
thofe Spanijh and Italian Forces, and 


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chap- 1, of the United Provinces. 

the Demand of Supplies from the States 
which the War had made neccfTary, and 
the eafier fupported^ He foon left off 
being lov'd, and began to be fear'd by 
the inhabitants of rhofe Proymces. 

'^wVPhtlip the Second thought it not 
agreeing with the Pomp and Greatnefs 
of the Houfj oi Auftria^ already at the 
Head of fo mighty Dominions \ nor with 
his Defigns of an yet greater Empire, 
to confider the Difcontents or Grievan- 
ces of fo fmall a Country > nor to be 
limited by their ancient Forms of Go- 
vernment: And therefore, at his Depar- 
ture for Spain:, and Subftitution of his 
Natural Sifter the Dutchefs of Tarma:, 
forGovernefs o^ thcLow-Countriesy af- 
iifted by the Miniftry of GranveU-, he 
left her inftru6ted to continue the Fo- 
reign Troops, and the Demand of Mo- 
ny from the ^l2Xts for their Support, 
which was now by a long courfc of 
War grown cuftomary among them, 
and the Sums only d.ifputed between 
the Prince and the States : To eftablifh 
the Fourteen Bifhops, he had agreed 
with the Pope, ftiould be added to the 
Three, that were anciently in the Low- 
Countries : To revive the Edi£ts of 
Charles the Fifth againll Luther^ pub- 
C 3 liOVd 


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1 % , 7he Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

liflVd in a Diet of the Empire about 
the Year lyfo? but eluded in the Low- 
Countries even in that Emperor's time 3 
and thereby ro make way for the In- 
quifition with the fame courfe it had 
received in Spain*, of which .the 
Ltitherans here, and the Moors there^ 
were made an equal Pretence. And 
thefe Points, as they came to be own- 
ed and executed, made the firft Com- 
motions of Mens Minds in the Pro- 

The Hatred of the People againft 
the Spaniards J and the Iniblencies of 
thoieTroops^ with the Charge of their 
Support^ made them look'd upon by the 
Inhabitants in general, as the Inftru- 
ments of their Oppreilion and Slavery, 
and not of their Defence, when a ge- 
neral Peace had left them no Enemies: 
And therefore the States began here 
their Complaints, with a general Con- 
fent and Pallion of all the Nobles, as 
well as Towns and Country, And upon 
the Delays that were contrived, or fell in, 
the States firft refufed to raife any more 
.Monies, either for the Spaniards Pay, 
or their own ftanding Troops j and the 
People ran into fo great Defpair, that 
in Zealand they abfolutely gave over 


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chap. I. of the United Provinces. 1 5 

the working at their Digues^ fufFering 
the Sea to gain every Tide upon the 
Country > and refolving ("as they faid} 
rather to be devoured by that Element, 
than by the SpanijJo Soldiers: So that 
after many Difputes and Intrigues, be- 
tween theGovernefs and the Provinces, 
the King, upon her Rcmonftranccs, 
was induced to their Removal 5 which 
was accordingly performed with great 
Joy and Applaufe of the People. 

The erefting of Fourteen new Bi- 
fliops Sees, raifed the next Conteft. 
The great Lords look'd upon this In- 
novation as a leffening of their Power, 
by introducing fo maiiy new Men into 
the great Council. The Abbots (^out 
of whofe Lands they were to be en- 
dowed} pleaded againft it, as a violent 
Ufurpation upon the Rights of the 
Church, and the Will of the Dead, 
who had given thofe Lands to a par- 
ticular ufe. The Commons murmured 
at it, as a new degree of Oppreflion 
upon their Confcience or Liberty, by 
the eretting fo many new Spiritual 
Courts of Judicature, and fo great a 
number of Judges, being Seventeen 
for Three, that were before \t\ the 
Country 3 and thofe dependiflg abfo- 
C 4, lutely 

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2 4 2^^^ Rif^ ^^d Progrefs Chap. L 

lutely upon the Pope, or the King. 
And all Men declaimed againft it^ as a 
Breach of the King's Oath at his Ac- 
cefllon to the Government, for the 
preferring the Church and the Laws in 
the fame ilatc he found them. Howe- 
ver this Point was gain'd entirely by 
the Governcfs, and carry'd over the 
head of all Oppofition, tho' not with- 
out leaving a general Difcontent. 

In the midll of thele ill Humours 
ftirring in Flanders^ the Wars of Reli- 
gion, breaking out in France^ drove 
great numbers of Calvinifls into all 
thofe parts of the Low-Countries that 
confine upon France^ as the Troubles 
of Germany had before of Lutherans^ 
into the Provinces about the Rhine y 
and the Profecutions under Queen Ma- 
ry^ thpfe of the Church o^ England in- 
to Flanders and Brabant:, by the great 
Commerce of this Kingdom with Bru- 
ges and Antwerp. 

Thefe Accidents and Neighbourhoods 
fijPd thefe Countries, in a fmall Tra£t 
of Time, with Swarms of the Reformed 
Profeflbrs : And the Admiration of 
their Zeal, the Opinion of their Do- 
ftrine and Piety, the Compaffion of 
their Sufferings, the Infufion of their 


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chap, L of the United Provinces. xy 

Difcontcnts, or the Humour of the 
Ag-? gain'd them every Day many 
Pi-oLlytes in the Low-Countries^ fonie 
among the Nobles, many among the 
Villages, but moil among the Cities, 
whole Trade and Richts were much 
encreafed by thefe new Inhabitants •, 
and whofe Intereft thereby, as well as 
Conv^rfation, drew them on to their 

This made Work for the hiquijitmij 
though m.oderately exercifed by the 
Prudence and Temper of the Gover-^ 
nefs, mediating between the Rigor of 
Granvelly who ftrain'd up to the high- 
eft his Mafter's Authority, and the Ex- 
ecution of his Commands upon all oc- 
cafions 'y and the Refolutcnefs of the 
Lords of the Provinces, to temiper the 
King's Edifts, and proteft the Liberties 
of their Country agamft the AdmiiTion 
of this New and Arbitrary Judicature, 
unknown to all ancknt Laws and Cu- 
floms of the Country -, and for that, 
not lefs odious to the People, than for 
the Cruelty of their Executions. For, 
before the Inquijitiony the Care of Re- 
ligion was in the Bi(hops> and before 
that, in the Civil Magiftrates through- 
out the Provinces, 


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%6 The Rife and Progrefs Chap, L 

Upon angry Debates in Council^ but 
chiefly upon the univerfal Minillry of 
Granvel/j a Btirgtmdian of mean Birtli^ 
grown at laft to a Cardinal ^ and more 
famous for the Greatnefs of his Parts, 
than the Goodnefs of his Life : The 
chief Lords of the Country (^ among 
whom the Prince of Orange^ Counts 
Egmont and Horn', the Marquefs of 
Berghen and Montigny^ were moft con- 
iiderable) grew to io violent and impla- 
cable an Hatred of the Cardinal^ (whe- 
ther from Paffion or Intereft} which 
was fo univerfally Ipread through the 
whole Body of the People, either by 
the Caufes of it^ or the Example, that 
the Lords firft refufed their Attendance 
in Council, protefting, Not to endure 
the Sight of a Man fo abfolute there^ 
and to the Ruin of their Country : And 
afterwards Petitioned the King, in the 
Name of the v/hole Country, for his 
Removal: Upon the Delay whereof, 
and the Continuance of the Inquiiition, 
the People appeared, upon daily Occa- 
lions and Accidents, heated to that de- i 
grec, as threatned a general Combufti- 
on in the whole Body, when ever the 
leaft Flame ihould break out in any 


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chap. L of the United Provinces. ^7 

But the King at length confented to 
Granvell's Recefs, by the Opinion of 
the Dutchefs of Tarma^ as well as the 
purfuic of the Provinces: Whereupon 
the Lords reaffum'd their Places in Coun- 
cil ', Count Egmont was fent into Spain 
to reprefent the Grievances of the Pro- 
vinces > and being favourably difpatcht 
by the Kingv, eipecially by remitting 
the Rigor of the Edifts about Religion> 
and the Inquifition, all noife of Dif- 
content and Tumult was appeafed> the 
Lords, were made ufe of by the Go- 
vernefs in the Council^ and Conduct 
of Affairs ^ and the Governefs was 
by the Lords both Obeyed and Ho- 

In the beginning of the Year 1 5'6f , 
there was a Conference at Bayonne be- 
tween Katherine Queen-Mother of 
France and her Son Charles the Ninth, 
(though very young) with his Sifter 
Ifabella Queen of Spain : In which no 
other Perfon but the Duke of Alva in- 
terven'd^ being deputed thither by T^hi- 
lip-t who excused his ownPrefence, and 
thereby made this Enterview pafs for 
an effe£t or expreffion of Kindncfs be- 
tween the Mother and her Children. 
Whether great Refolutions are the more 


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x8 The Rife and Progvefs Chap. I. 

fufpe(3:ed^ where great Secrefie is ob- 
ferv'dj or if it be true^ what the Prince 
of Orange affirmed to have by accident 
difcover'd^ That the Extirpation of all 
FamiHes which fliould profefs the New 
Religion in the French or Spanifh Do- 
minions, was here agreed on, with mu- 
tual Afliftance of the Two Crowns. 
^Tis certain, and was owned, that 
Matters of Religion were the Subject 
of that Conference j and that foon 
after, in the fame Year, came Letters 
from King "Philip to the Dutchefs of 
Tarma^ difclaiming the Interpretation 
which had been given to his Letters 
by Count Egmont ^ declaring, His 
Pleafure was, That all Herecicks (liould 
be put to death without Reiniffion> 
That the Emperor's Edifts, and the 
Council of Trent^ (hould be pubHflh- 
ed and obferved ^ and commanding. 
That the utmoft AiTiftance of the Ci- 
vil Power {hould be given to the Inciui- 

When this was divulg'd, at firft,the A- 
llonifliment was great throughout their 
Provinces 3 but that foon gave way to 
their Rage, which began to appear 
in their Looks, in their Speeches, their 
bold Meetings and Libels ^ and wa^ 


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chap. I. of the United Provinces. 15; 

cncre^fed by the miferable Speftacles of 
fo many Executions upon account of 
Religion. The Conftancy of the Suf- 
ferers, and Compaffion of the Behold- 
ers, confpiring generally to leflen the 
Opinion of Guilt or Crime, and heighten 
a Deteflation of the Punifhment and De- 
iire of Revenge, againft the Authors of 
that Counfel, of whom the Duke of 
Alva was efteemed the Chief 

In the beginning of the Year i f <5(>, 
began an open Mutiny of the Citizens 
in many Towns, hindring Executions, 
and forcing Prifons and Officers > and 
this was followed by a Confederacy 
of the Lords, Never to fufFer the In- 
qutjitton in the Low-Convtries^ as con- 
trary to all Laws, both facred and pro- 
phane, and exceeding the Cruelty of 
all former Tyrannie^^ upon which, all 
Refolutions of Force or Rigor grew^ 
unfafe for the Government, now too 
weak for fuch a Revolution of the Peo- 
ple > and on the other lide, Brederodey 
in confidence of the general Favour, 
came in the Head of Two Hundred 
Gentlemen, thorow the Provinces, to 
Bruffelsy and in bold Terms petitioned 
the Governefs for aholilhing the Inqui- 
Jition^ and Edids about Religion 3 and 


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J o "the Rife and Progvefs Chap. L 

that new ones fliould be fram'd by a 
Convention of the States. 

The Governefs was forc'd to ufe 
gentle Remedies to fo violent a Dif- 
cafej to receive the Petition without 
fhew of the Refentment fhe had at hearty, 
and to promifc a Reprefentation of 
their Defires to the Kings which was 
accordingly done : But though the 
King was ftartled with fuch Confc- 
quences of his laft Commands, and at 
length induced to recall them •, yet, 
whether by the Slownefs of his Na- 
ture, or the Forms of the Spaiitjh Courts 
the Anfwer came too late: And as all 
his former ConcellionS) either by Delay^ 
or Teftimonies of ill-will or meaning 
in them, had loft the good Grace j fo 
this loft abfolutely theEffeft, and came 
into the Low 'Countries when all was 
in flame, by an Infurreftion of the 
meaner People through many great 
Towns of Flanders^ Holland^ and f/- 
trecht s who fell violently upon the 
Spoil of Churches, and Deftrudion of 
Images, with a thoufand circumftances 
of barbarous and brutirti Fury ; which^ 
with the Inftitution of Confiftories and 
Magiftrates in each Town among thofe 
of the Reformed Profcffion, with Pub- 

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chap. L of the United Provinces. 3 1 

lick Confederacies and Diftindions, 
and private Contributions agreed up- 
on for the Support of their eommon 
Caufe, gave the firfl Date in this Year 
of i^66y to the Revolt of the Low- 

But the Nobility of the Country^ 
and the richcft of the People in the 
CitieS:, though unfatisfy'd with the 
Government, yet feeling the Effefts^ 
and abhorring the Rage, of popular 
Tumults, as the worft Mifchief that 
can befall any State: And encourag'd 
by the Arrival of the King s Concelli- 
ons, began to unite their Councils and 
Forces with thofe of the Governefs, 
and to employ themfelves both with 
great Vigor and Loyalty, for fuppref- 
ling the late Infurredions, that had 
feis'd upon many, and ihak'd moft of 
the Cities of the Provinces > in which 
the Prince of Orange and Count Eg- 
mont were great Inftruments, by the 
Authority of their great Charges, ("one 
being Governor of Holland and Zea- 
land^ and the other of Flanders^ ^ but 
more by the general Love and Confi- 
dence of the People^ 'till by the re- 
ducing Valenciens^ Maeftricht^ and the 
Burfe^ by Arms \ the Submiilion of 


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3 1 The Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

Antwerp and other Towns ^ the De- 
fedion of Count Egmont from the 
Councils of the Confederate Lords ("as 
they were calPd ^} the Retreat of the 
Prince of Orange into Germany j and 
the Death of Brederode ; with the News 
and Preparations of King Thilip's fud- 
den Journey into tho, Low-Countries^ as 
well as the Prudence and Moderation 
of the Dutchefs, in governing all thefe 
Circumftances ^ The whole Eftate of the 
Provinces was pcrfeftly reftor'd to its 
former Peace, Obedience, and at leaft, 
Appearance of Loyalty. 

Kmg T'htlipy whether having never 
really decreed his Journey into Flan- 
ders'^ or diverted by the Pacification 
of the Provinces, and Apprehenfion of 
the Moors rebelling in Spain-, or a Di- 
ftrufi: of his Son Prince Charles his 
violent Paffions and Difpofitions, or 
the Expectation of what had been re- 
folvt^d at Bayonney growning ripe for 
Execution in France^ gave over the 
Difcourfe of feeing the Low-Countries *y 
But at the fame time took up the Re- 
folution for difpatching the Duke of 
Alva thither at the Head of an Army 
of Ten Thoufand Veteran Spamjh^ and 
Italian^ Troops, fortheAffiftanceof the 


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chap. I. of the United Provinces* 3 3 

Governcfs, the Execution of the Laws, 
the fupprefling and puniilimenL" of all, 
who had been Authors or Fonxenters of 
the late Seditions. 

This Refult was put fuddenly in 
Execution, though wholly againlt the 
Advice of the Dutchefs of 'Parma in 
Flanders:, and the Duke of Feria (one 
of the chief Minifters) in Spam : 
Who thought, the prefenc Peace of the 
Provinces ought not to be invaded by 
new Occafions •, nor the Royal Autho- 
rity leflened, by being made a Party 
in a War upon his Subjefts ;, nor a 
Mirtifter employed, where he was fo 
profefTedly both hating, and hated, as 
the Duke of y^lva in the Low-Coun- 

But the King was unmoveable ^ fo 
th^t in the end of the Year 15^67, the 
Puke of Alva arrived there with an 
Army of Ten Thoufand, the beft Spanijh 
and Italian Sdldicrs, under the Com- 
iDand of the choiceft Officers, which 
the Wars of Charles the Fifth, or 
Philip the Second, had bred up in Eu- 
rope-, which, with Two Thoufand Ger- 
mans the Dutchefs of Parma had rais'd 
in the lafl: Tumults, and under the 
Command of fo Old ahd R,^own'd 
D a 

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54 The Rife and Progrefs Chap.L 

a Genefal as the Duke of Jlva, mide 
up a Force, which nothing in the Low- 
Countries could look in the face with 
other Eyes, than of Afloniflimcnt, Sub- 
miilion, or Dcfpair. 

Upon the firft report of this Expedi^ 
tion, the Trading People of the Towns 
arid Country began in vaft Numbers 
to retire out of the Provinces -, fo as 
the Dutchefs wrote to the King, That, 
in few days, above a Hundred Thou- 
fand Men had left the Country, and 
withdrawn both their Mony and 
Goods, and more were following every 
day : So great Antipathy there ever 
appears between Merchants and Soldi- 
ers; whilft one pretends to be fafe un- 
der Laws, v^'hich the other pretends 
(liall be fubjeft to his Sword, and his 
Will. And upon the lirft Aftion of 
the Duke of ^/r^ after his Arrival, 
which was the feizing Count Egmont 
and Horn^ as well as the fufpefted Death 
of the Marquefs of Berghen, and Im- 
prifonment of Montigny in Spain^ (whi- 
ther, fome Months before, they had been 
fent with CommiiTion and Inftrudions 
from the Dutchefs,} flie immediately 
defired leave of the King to retire out 
of the Low -Countries. 


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Ghap. I. of the United Provinces. 3 5 

This was eafily obtained, and the 
Duke of Jha inverted in the Govern- 
ment, with Powers never given before 
to any Governor : A Council of 
Twelve was ere6ted for Tryal of all 
Crimes committed againft the Kmg's 
Authority, which was called by the 
People, The Council of Blood. Great 
numbers were condemned and execu- 
ted by Sentence of this Council, upon 
account of the lateInfurre£tions : More 
by that of the Inqui/ttioUy again ft the 
parting- advice of the Dutchels of jP^r- 
ma^ and the Exclamations of the Peo- 
ple at thofe illegal Courts. The Towns 
ftomached the Breach of their Char- 
ters, the People of their Liberties, the 
Knights of the Golden-Fleece the Char- 
ters of their Order, by thefe new and 
odious Courts of Judicature: All com- 
plain of the difufe of the States, of the 
introduftion of Armies, but all in vain : 
The King was conftant to what he 
had determined > Alva was in his na- 
ture cruel and inexorable ; the new 
Army was fierce and brave, and deii- 
rous of nothing fo much as a Rebelli- 
on in the Country : The People were 
enraged, but awed and unheaded: All 
was Seizure and Procefsj Confifcation 
D 2 and 

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j tf The Rife and Progfefs Chap. L 

and Imprifonmcnt, Blood and Horror, 
Infolence and Dejeftion, PuniOiments 
executed and meditated Revenge: The 
fmaller Branches were lopt off apace •, 
the great ones were longer a hewing 
down. Count Egmoiit and Home laft- 
fed feveral Months-, but, at lengthy in 
Ipight of all their Services to Charles 
the Fifth, and to Thi/ip ; as well as of 
their new Merits, in the quieting of 
the Provinces, and of fo great Suppli- 
cations and IntcrccflTions as were made 
ill their Favour, both in Spain and in 
Flanders^ they were publickly beheaded 
at Bruffels^ which fcemed to break all 
patience in the People 3 and, by their 
End, to give thofe Commotions a Bc- 
ginnmg, which coft Europe fo much 
Blood, and Spain a great part of the 
Low 'Country -Vxovincts, 

After the Procefs of Egmont and 
Horne^ the Prince of Orange^ who was 
retifd into Germany^ was fummoned 
to his Trial for the fame Crimes, of 
which the others had been accufed 5 
and, upon his not appearing, was con- 
demned, proclaimed Traitor, and his 
whole Eftate, which was very great 
ih the Provinces, (and in Burgundy') 
feiz^d upon, as forfeited to the King. 


Hosted by Google 

chap. L of the United Provinces, 

The Prince;, treated in this manner^ while 
he was quiet and unarmed in Germany^ 
employs all his Credit with thofe Prin- 
ces engaged to him by Alliance, pr by 
common Fears of the Houfe of Au- 
ftria^ throws off all Obedience to the 
Duke o? Aha^ raifcs Forces, joins with 
great numbers flocking tp him out oF 
the Provinces : All enraged at the 
Duke of Alva's Cruel and Arbitrary 
Government, and refolv^d to revenge 
the Count Egmonfs Death, (who had 
ever been the Darling of the People.} 
With the£e Troops he Qwtcrs Friez,land^ 
and invades the outward Parts of Bra- 
bant^ receives Succours from the Prote- 
ftants of France^ then in Arms under 
the Prince of Conde : And after many 
various Encounters and Succeffes, by 
the great Conduit of Alva^ and Va- 
lour of his Veteran Army, being hin- 
dred from feizing upon any Town in 
Brabant^ (which boch of them knew 
would (hake the FideUty of the Pro- 
vinccs,} he is at length forc'd to break 
up his Army, and to retire into Germany, 
Hereupon, Alva returns in Triumph to. 
Brujfels ; and as if lie had made a 
Cpnqucft, inilead of a Defence, caufes 
out of the Cannon taken from Lewis 
D3 of 

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5 8 ^he Rife and Progrefs Chap. I; 

ofNafaU'i his Statue to be caft in Brafs, 
treading and infulting upon two fmaller 
Statues, that reprefented the Two E- 
ftatcs ofthe Low-Countries : And this to 
be erefted in the Cittadel he had built 
at Antwerp^ for the abfokite fubjefting 
of that rich, populous, and mutinous 

Nothing had raifed greater Indigna- 
tion among the Flemings^ than the 
pubUck fight and oftentation of this 
Statue > and the more, becaufe they 
knew the Boaft to be true, finding 
their ancient Liberties and Privileges 
(^thc Inheritance of fo many Ages, or 
Bounty of fo many Princes} all now 
proftrate before this one Man's Sword 
and Will, who from the time of CharleS' 
the Fifth had ever been efteemed an 
Enemy of their Nation, and Author of 
all the Counfels for the abfolute fub- 
duing their Country. 

But Jlva^ mov'd with no Rumors, 
terrified with no Threats from a bro- 
ken and unarmed People, and think- 
ing no Meafures nor Forms were any 
more neceffary to be obferved in the 
Low-Cotmtries -^^tcttnds greater Sums 
are ncceifary for the Pay and Reward 
of his Vidorious Troops, than were 
. . . annually 

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chap. I. of the United Provinces. 3 p 

annually granted upon the King's Re- 
quefl::^ by the States of the Provinces : 
And therefore demands a general Tajj 
of the Hundredth part of every Man's 
Ellate in the Low -Countries ^ to be raifed 
at once: And for the future, the Twen- 
tieth of all Immoveables, and the Tenth 
of all that was Sold. 

The Scares, with much Relud-ancy, 
confent to the firfl:, as a thmg that 
ended at once; but refufed the other 
two, alledging the Poverty of the Pro- 
vinces, and the Ruin of Trade. Upon 
the Duke's perfifting, they petition the 
King by Meflengers into Spain ^ but 
without Redrefs J draw out the Year in 
Contefl:s„ fbmetimes ftomachful, fome* 
times humble, with the Governor > 'rill 
the Duke, impatient of further delay^ 
caufes the Edid, without Confent of 
the States, to be publifhed at Brujfels. 
The People refufe to pay, the Soldiers 
begin to levy by force ^ the Townf- 
men all fliut up their Shops j the Peo- 
ple in the Country forbear the Mar- 
ket, fo as not fo much as Bread or 
Meat is to be bought in the Town. 
The Duke is enraged, and calls the 
Soldiers to Arms, and commands feve- 
ral of the Inhabitants, who refufed the 
D 4 Pay- 

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4 Q 7h€ Rife avd Progrefs Chap. L 

Payments, to be hanged that very Night 
upon their Sign-poits ^ which nothing 
moves the Obftinacy of the People : 
And now the Officers of the Guards 
^re ready to begin the Executions, 
when News comes to Town of the ta- 
king of the Br /el by the Guefes^ and 
of the Expeftation that had given of a 
fudden Revolt in the Province of Hol- 

This unexpefted Blow ftruck the 
Duke of Alva ; and forefeeing the 
Confequences of it^ becaufe he knew 
the Stubble was dry, and now he found 
the Fire was fallen in, he thought 
it an ill time to make an end of the 
Tragedy in Brabant^ whilft a new Scene 
was opened in Holland s and fo, giving 
over for the prefent his Taxes and Exe- 
cutions, applies his Thoughts to the 
Suppreflion of this new Enemy, that 
broke in upon him from the Sea 5 and 
for that Reafon, the Bottom and Reach 
of the Defign, as well as the Nature 
and Strength of their Forces, were to 
the Duke the lefs known, and the 
more fufpeited. Now becaufe this 
Seifure of the Brkl began the fecond 
great Commotion of the Low-Countries 
in If 70, and that which indeed never 


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chap. L of the United Provinces. 4 1 

ended, but in the Lofs of thofe Provin- 
ces, where the Death of the Spantfi and 
Royal Government gave Life to a new 
Commonwealth -, it will be neceflary 
to know, what fort of Men, and by 
what Accidents united, and by what 
Fears or Hopes emboldened, were the 
firft Authors of this Adventure, 

Upon Brederodes delivering a Peti- 
tion to the Dutchefs of Tarmac, againft 
the Inqm(ttion^ and for fome Liberty in 
Point of Religion-, thofe Perfons, which 
attended him, looking mean in their 
Cloath3 and their Garb, were called by 
one of the Courtiers, at their entrance 
into the Palace, Guefes^ which fignifies 
Beggars-, a Name, though raised by 
chance^ or by fcorn, yet atfeded by 
the Party, as an Expreffion of Humi- 
lity and Dift refs, and us'd ever after 
by both fidcsj as a Name of Diftindion, 
comprehending all, who diflentcd from 
the Roman Church, how different io- 
ever in Opinion among themfelves. 

Thefe Men, fpread in great numbers 
through the whole extent of the Pro- 
vinces, by the Accidents and Difpoliti- 
ons already mentioned, after the ap- 
peafing of their firft Sedition, were 
broken in their common Counfels 5 and 


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4t The Rife and Progrefs Chap. I. 

by the Cruelty of the Inquifition, and 
Rigor of u4lva^ were in great multir 
tudes forced to retire out of the Pro« 
vinceS) at leaft^ fuch as had means or 
hopes of fubfifting abroad : Many of 
the poorer and more defperate fled 
into the Woods of the upper Coun- 
tries, (where they are thick and wild} 
and liv'd upon SpoiU and, in the firft 
Defcent of the Prince of Orange his 
Forces, did great Mifchiefs to all 
fcatter*d Parties of the Duke of ^Z- 
va's Troops in their March through 
thofe Parts. But after that Attempt of 
the Prince ended without Succefs, and 
he was forced back into Germany } the 
Count of Marcke^ a violent and imr 
placable Enemy to the Duke of Alva 
and his Government, with many others 
of the broken Troops, (whom the fame 
Fortune and Difpofition had left toge- 
ther in Friezlarid^^ man'd out fome 
Ships of fmall Force, and betook them^ 
felves to Sea 5 and, with Commiffions 
from the Prince of Orange^ began to 
prey upon all they could maftcr, that 
belonged to the Spaniards. They fome- 
times (hekered and watered, and fold 
their Prizes in fome Creeks qr fmall 
Harbors o^ E'riglandy though forbidden 


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chap. I. of //^^ United Provinces. 45 

by Queen Elizabeth^ (^then in Peace 
with Spaini) fometimes in the River 
Ems, or fome fmall Ports o? Friezland; 
'till at length, having gain'd confide- 
rable Riches by thefe Adventures, whe^ 
ther to fell, or to refrefli, whether dri- 
ven by Storm, or led by Dcfign, ("upon 
knowledge of the ill Blood which the 
new Taxes had bred in all the Provinces) 
they landed in the Ifland of the Briel, 
aflaulted and carried the Town, puH'd 
down the Images in the Churches, pro- 
fefled openly their Religion, declared 
againft the Taxes and 7 yranny of t^e 
Spanjjh Government, and were imme- 
diately followed by the Revolt of mod 
of the 'To^nsoi Holland., Zealand, and 
Weft-Friezland., who threw out the J))^- 
mjh Garrifons, renounced their Obe- 
dience to Kw^Thilipy andfwore Fide, 
hty to the Prince of Orange. 

The Prince returned out of Ger- 
many with new Forces, and, making 
ufe of this Fury of the People, con- 
tented nothimfelf with Holland and 
Zealand, but march'd up into the very 
Heart of the Provinces, within five 
Leagues oiBmpls, feizingupon Mech- 
Im, and many other Towns, with fo 
great Confent, Applaufe, andConcourfe 


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44 5"^^ ^{/^ ^^^ Progrefs Chap. L 

of People, that the whole Spanijh Do- 
minion now fcem'd ready to expire 
in t\\c Low-Countries^ if it nad not been 
rcviv'd by the Maflacre of the Prote- 
Iknts at Tarts ^^ which^ contrived by 
joint Counfels with King "Thilip:^ and 
afted by a Spmiijh Party in the Court 
of France', and with fo Eital a Blow 
to the contrary Faction, encourag'd 
the Duke of Alva^ and dampt the 
Prince of Orange in the fame degree •, 
fo that one gathers ftrength enough ro 
defend the Heart of t\\z Provinces, and 
the other retires into Holla?idy and. 
makes that the Seat of the War. 

This Country was ftrong by its Na- 
ture and Seat among the Waters^ that 
cncompafs and divide it ^ but more by 
a rougher fort of People at that time,. 
Icfs foftened by Trad^e, or by Riches ^ 
lefs us'd to Grants of Mony and 
Taxes j and proud of their ancient 
Fame> recorded in the Roman Stories, 
of being obflinate Defenders of their 
Liberties, and now moft implacable 
Haters of the Spanijh Name. 

All thefe Difpofitions were encreas'd 
and hardened, in the War that enfu'd 
under the Duke of Jlva's Condu£t, or 
liis Sons j by the Slaughter of all in- 

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Chap. L of the United Provinces. 45 

nocenc Perfons and Sexes, upon the ta-' 
king of Naerdeit, where the Houfes 
were burnt^ and the Walls levelled to 
the Ground •, by the defpcratc Defence 
of Haerlem for Ten Months, with all 
the Praftifcs and Returns of Ignominy> 
Cruelty, and Scorn on both fides ^ while 
the very Women lillcd themfelves in 
Companies, repaired Breaches, gave 
Alarms, and beat up Quarters, 'till, all 
being famiflVd, Four Hundred Burgers 
(after the Surrender) were kill'd in cold 
Blood, among many other Examples of 
an mcens'd Conqueror ^ which made 
the Humor of d\^ Parties grow more 
defperate, and their Hatred to S^'aiti 
and Alva incurable. 

The fame Army broken and forc'd 
to rife from before Alcmaer^ after a 
long and fierce Siege in ^/i;^'$ Time^ 
and from before Leyden in the Time of 
Requifenes (where the Boors them- 
felves open'd the Sluces, and drown'd 
the Country, refolving to mifchief the 
Spamards^ at the Charge of their own 
Ruin,) gave the great Turn to Affairs 
ill HoUand. 

The King grows fenfible of Danger, 
and apprehenfive of the total Dcfcfti- 
on of the Provinces 3 Alva weary of 


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4^ The Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

his Government, finding his violent 
Councils and Proceedings had raifed a 
Spirit, which was quiet before he came, 
and was never to be laid any more. 
The Duke is recalled, and the War 
goes on under Requifenes •, who dying 
fuddenly, and^without provifions made 
by the King for a Succellbr ^ the Go- 
vernment, by Cuftoms of the Coun- 
try, devolved by way of Interim up- 
on the Great Council, which lafted 
fome time, by the delay of "Don John 
o^ Auftrid's coming, who was declared 
the new Governor. 

But in this Interim, the ftrength of 
the Difeafe appears-, for, upon the Mu- 
tiny of fome Spantjh Troops, for want 
of rheir Pay, and their feizing Alofi^ a 
Town near Bnijfels^ the People grow 
into a rage, the Tradefmen give ovet 
their Shops, and the Country-Men 
their Labour, and all run to Arms : In 
BniJJels they force the Senate, pull out 
thole Men they knew to be moft ad- 
did'cd to the Spaniards y kill fuch of 
that Nation as they meet in theStreetSj 
and all in general cry out for the Ex- 
pulfion of Foreigners out of the Low- 
Countrfes ^ and the Aflembhng of the 
States 3 to which the Council is forced 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. I. of the United f^rovihces. 47 

to confent. In the mean time, the chief 
Pcrlons of the Provinces enter into an 
Agreement with the Vxincc o^ Orange^ 
to carry on the common Affairs of the 
Provinces by the fame Counfels •, fo as 
v/hen the Eftates aflembled at Ghent^ 
without any Conteftj they agreed upon 
that Act^ which was called The Tactfi- 
cation of Ghent ^ in the Year i5'7<>> 
whereof the chief Articles were 5 The 
Expulfion of all Foreign Soldiers out of 
the Trovinces s Refioring all the ancient 
Forms of Government ; And referring 
Matters of Religion in each province to 
the Trovincial Efiates ^ And that for 
performance hereof^ the reji of the T^ro- 
vincesfoould for ever be confederate with 
Holland /aW Zealand. And this made 
the iirft Period of the Low-Country 
Troubles^ proving to King Thilip a dear 
Experience, how little the beft Conduft, 
and boldeft Armies, are able to with- 
ftand the Torrent of a ftubborn and en- 
raged People, which ever bears all down 
before it, ^till it comes to be divided in- 
to different Channels by Arts, or by 
Chance 5 or, 'till the Springs, which arc 
the Humors that fed it^, come to be fpent, 
Qr dry up of themfelves. 


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4S The Rife and Progvefs Chap. L 

The Foreign Forces, refufmg to de- 
part, are declared Rebels j whereupori 
the Spanijh Troops force and plunder 
feveral Towns, and Antwerp among the 
reftj (by Advantage of the Cittadel^) 
with equal Courage and Avarice ^ and 
defend themfelves in feveral Holds from 
theFbrces of theStates, 'tiWTion John's 
arrival at Lux^emburg^ the only Town 
of the Provinces, where he thought 
himfelf fafe, as not involved in the 
Dcfeftidh of the reft. 

The Eftates refufc to admit him^ 
without his accepting and confirming 
the Pacification of Ghent ; which at 
length he do^s^ by leave from the King, 
and enters upon the Government with 
the Difmiffion of all Foreign Troops, 
which return into Italy., Butfoon after^ 
T>on John^ whether out of Indigna- 
tion to fee himfelf but a precarious Go- 
vernor, without Force orDependance^ 
or, defiring new occafions of Fame by 
a War 5 or, inftrufted from Spain up- 
on new Counfels, takes the occafi- 
on of complimenting Queen Mnrgaret 
o^Navar upon her Journey out oi France 
to the Spsw^ and on a fudden ieizes 
upon the Caftle of i\r^^///r. Whereupoa 
the Provinces for the third time throw 


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ChapiL 0/ r^^ United Provinces. 49 

off their Obedience, call the Prince of 
Orange to Brujfelsy where he is made 
Proteftor of Brabant^ by the States of 
that Province, and Preparations are 
made on both fides for the War : 
While Spain is bufie to form new Ar- 
mies, and draw them together in Na- 
rnur and Luxemburg^ the only Pro- 
vinces obedient to that Crown: And 
all the reft agree to eleft a Governor 
of their own, and fend to Matthias the 
Emperor's Brother, to offer him the 

At this tirrie began to be formed the 
Male-content Party in the Low-Coun^ 
tries } which, though agreeing with the 
reft in their Hatred to the Spaniards^ 
and Defence of their Liberties and 
Laws, yet were not inclined to (hake 
oif their Allegiance to their Prince, 
nor change their old and cftablifti*d Re- 
ligion: And thefe were headed by the 
Duke of Arefchot^ and feveral Great 
Men, the mdre averfe from a general 
Defedtion, by Emulation or Envy of 
the Prince of Orange's Greatnefs, who 
was now grown to have all the Influ- 
ence and Credit in the Counfels of t\v^ 

By the Afllftance of this Party, after 
E T^on 

Hosted by Google 

J o The Rife and Progrefs Chap. I. 

^m John's fudden Death, the Duke of 
^arma^ fucceedinghim, gained Strength 
and Reputation upon his coming to 
the Government, and an entrance upon 
that great Scene of Glory and Viftory, 
which made both his Peribn fo renown- 
ed, and the time of his Government 
fignaliz'd by fo many Sieges and Bat- 
tels, and the Reduftion of fo great a 
part of the Body of the Provinces to 
the Subjeftion of Spain. 

Upon the Growth of this Party, and 
for Diftinftion from them, who, purfu- 
ing a middle and dangerous Counfel, 
were at length to become an Accelfion to 
one of the Extreams -, the more Nor- 
thern Provinces, meeting by their De- 
puties at Utrecht^ in the Year if75;3» 
framed an Aft or AlUance, which was 
ever after caird The Union ^Utrecht j 
and was the Original Conftitution and 
Frame of that Commonwealth, which 
has fince been fo well known in the 
World, by the Name of The United 

This Union was grounded upon the 
'Spaniards Breach of the Pacification of 
Ghent ^ and new Invafion of fome 
Towns in Gelderlandi and was not pre- 
tended to divide thefc Provinces from 


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chap. I. of the United Provinces. 5 ^ 

the Generality^ nor from the faid Taci- 
feat ion > but to ftrengthen and purfiie 
the Ends of it^ by more vigorous and 
united Counfels and Arms. 

The chief Force of this Union con- 
fifts in thefe Points, drawn out of the 
Inftrument it felf 

The Seven Provinces unite themfel ves 
fo> as if they were but One Province, 
and fo, as never to be divided by Tc- 
ftament, Donation, Exchange, Sale, 6r 
Agreement : Referving. to each parti- 
cular Province and City, all Privi- 
leges) Rights, Cuftoms and Statutes : 
In adjuging whereof, or Differences 
that (hall arife between any of the Pro- 
vinces, the reft (hall not intermeddle 
further, than to intercede towards an 

They bind themfel ves to ailift one 
another with Life and Fortunes againft 
all Force and AfTault made upon any 
of them, whether upon Pretence of 
Royal Majefty, of reftoring Catholick 
Religion, or any other whatfoever. 

All Froicitier-Towns belonging to th^ 
Union, if Old, to be fortified at th^ 
Charge of the Prpvino? where they lie> 
if New, to be crededat the Charge lof 
ihe Generality, 

E2 All 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

5 1 The Rife and Progrefs Chap, t 

All Impofts and Cuftoms, from three 
Months to three Months, to be ofFer- 
ed to them that bid moil > and, with 
the Incomes of the Royal Majefty, to 
be employed for the common De- 

All Inhabitants to be Lifted and Train- 
ed within a Months from 1 8 to 60 Years 
old. Peace and War not to be made 
without Confent of all the Provinces 5 
Other Cafes, that concern the Manage- 
ment of both, by moft Voices, Diffe- 
rences that fhall arife upon the firft, be- 
tween the Provinces, to be fubmitted 
to the Stadtholders. 

Neighbouring Princes, Lords, Lands, 
and Cities, to be admitted into phe U- 
nion, by Confent of the Provinces. 

For Religion, thofe of Holland and 
Zealand^ to aft in it as feems good un- 
to themfelves. The other Provinces 
may regulate thcmfelves according to 
the Tenor eftablifli'd by Matthias ^ or elfe 
as they fliaill judge to be moft for the 
Peace and Welfare of their particular 
Provinces 5 provided^ every one remain 
free in his Religionj and no Man be ex- 
aroined or entrapped for that caufe, ac-^ 
cording to the Pacification of Ghent. 


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chap. L (?/ //;^ United Provinces. 55 

In cafe of any Diflcntion or DifFeren* 
ces between Provinces^ if ic concern 
one in particular^ it fliall be accommo- 
dated by the others^ if it concern all 
in general, by theStadtholders: Inbpth 
which Cafes, Sentence to be pronoun- 
ced within a Month? and without Ap- 
peal or Revifipn, 

The States to be held, as has been 
formerly ufed-, and the Mint in fudh 
manner, as fhall hereafter be agreed by 
aII the Provinces. 

Interpretation of thefe Articles to re- 
main in the States j but in cafe of their 
differing, in the Stadrhplders. 

They bind themfclye$ to fall upon, 
and imprifon any, that fliall ad: con- 
trary to thefe Articles > in which caf? 
no Privilege nor Exemption to be va- 

This Ad: was Signed by the Dcpu« 
ties of Guelderland^ Zutphen^ HoUandy 
Zealand^ Utrecht^ and the Omlands of 
Frtze^ Jan, 23. if/p. but was not 
Signed by the Prince of Orange 'till May 
following, and \^ith this Signification, 
judging, that by the fame the Superio- 
rity and Authority of Arch-Duke Mat- 
thias is not IcfTened. 

E 3 In 

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5 4 7^^^ ^^fi ^'^d Progrefs Chap. I. 

In the fame Year, this Union was 
entered and fign'd by the Cities of Ghent ^ 
Nlmmeguen^ Arnhem^ Leewarden^ with 
fome particular Nobles of Friezlandy 
Ve7ilo^ Tpresy AntiDerp^ Breda^ and 
Bruges, And thus thcfe Provinces be- 
came a Commonwcakhj but in fo low 
and uncertain a ftate of Affairs, by rea- 
fon of the various Motions and AfFefti- 
ens of Mens Mmds, the different Ends 
andlnterefts of the feveral Parties, efpe- 
daily in the other Provinces y and the 
niighty Power and Preparations of the 
Spdnijh Monarchy to opprefs them, 
that in their firfl Coin they caused a 
Ship to be ftamped, labouring among 
the Waves without Sails pr Oars •, and 
thefe .^\^ords, Incertum quo fata fe- 

I thought fo particular a Dcduftion 
neceffary, to difcover the natural Cau- 
fes of this Revolution in the Low^ 
Countries y which has fince had fo great 
apart, for near an Hundred Years, in all 
the Aftions and Negotiations of Chri- 
ftendom j and to find out the true In- 
centives of that obHinateLove for their 
Liberties, and invincible Hatred for the 
Span/Jh Nation and Government, which 
laid the Foundation of this Common- 
wealth : 

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chap. I. of the United Provinces. 5 5 

wealth : And this kft I take to have 
been the ftronger PalTion, and of the 
greater EfFcit, both in the bold Coun- 
lels of contrafting their Union, and the 
defperate Refolucions of defending it. 
For not long after, the whole Council 
of this new State, being prefs*d by the 
Extremities of their Affairs, pafling by 
the Form of Government in the way of 
a Commonwealth, made an earneft and 
folemn Offer of the Dominion of thefe 
Provinces both to England and France } 
but were refufed by both Crowns: 
And though they retained the Name 
of a Free People, yet they foon loft 
the Eafe of the Liberties they contend- 
ed for, by the Abfolutenels of their 
Magiftrates in the feveral Cities and 
Provinces, and by the extrcam Pref- 
fure of their Taxes, which fo long 
a War, with fo mighty an Enemy, 
made neceffary for the Support of their 

But the Hatred of the Sparhijh Go- 
vernment, under Alva^ was fo univer- 
fal, that it made the Revolt general 
through the Provinces, running through 
all Religions, and all Orders of Men> 
as appeared by the Pacification of 
Ghent ji 'Till by the Divifion of the 
E 4 Parties, 

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^ (J 7he Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

Parties, by the Powers pf fo vaft a 
Monarchy as S^ain at that time, and 
by the matchlefs Conduft and Valour 
of the Duke of Tarma^ this Humour, 
like Poifon in a ftrong Conftitution, 
^nd with the help of violent Phyfick, 
was expeird from the Heart, which was 
Flanders and Brabant^ (with the reft qf 
the Ten Provinces} into the outward 
Members j and by their being cut off, 
the Body was faved. After which, 
the moft enflamed Spirits being driven 
by the Arms of Spain^ or drawn by 
the Hopes of Liberty and Safety, into 
the United Provinces out qf the reft, 
the Hatred of Spain grew to that 
height, that they were ;iot only wil- 
ling to fubrait to any new Dominion, 
rather than return to the old ^ but 
when they could find no Mafter to 
protect them, and their Aff'airs grew 
defperate, they were once certainly 
upon the Counfel of burning their 
great Towns, wafting and drowning 
what they could of their own Country, 
and going to fcek fome new Seats in 
the Indies, Which they might have 
executed, i? they had found Shipping 
epough to carry off all their Numbers, 
and had iipt been detained by the Com- 


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chap. I. ^/ ?^^ United Provinces. 57 

pailion of thqfe which muft have been 
left behind, at the mercy of an incen- 
fed and conquering Maftcr. 

The Spanijh and Italian Writers con* 
tent themfelves to attribute the Cau- 
fes of thefe Revolutions to the Change 
of Religion, to the native Stubborn- 
iiefs of the People, and to the Ambi- 
tion of the Princes of Orange: But 
Religion, Iwithout mixtures of Ambi- 
tion and Intereft, works no fuch vio- 
lent EfFefts-, and produces rather the 
f^xamples of conftant Sufferings, than 
of dcfperate Adions. The Nature of 
the People cannot change of a fudden, 
no more than the Climate which in- 
fufes it 5 And no Country hath brought 
forth better Subjefts, than many of 
thefe Provinces, both before and iincc 
thefe Commotions among them-. And 
the Ambition of one Man could nei- 
ther have defigned or atchieved fo 
great an Adventure, had it not been 
feconded with univerfal Difcontent: 
Nor could that have been raifed to fo 
great an Height and Heat, without fo 
many Circumftances as fell in from an 
unhappy Courfe of the Spanifh Coun- 
fels, to kindle and foment it. For 
though it Jiad been hs^rcj to head fuch 


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5 8 The Rife and Progrefs Gliap. L 

a Body, and give it fo ftrong a Prin- 
ciple of Life, and fo regular Motions, 
without the accident of lb great a Go- 
vernor in the Provinces, as Prince 
WiUiam of Orange: A Man of equal 
Abilities in Council and in Arms > Cau- 
tious and Refolute, Affable and Se- 
verc, Supple to Occafions, and yet 
Conftant to his Endsj of mighty Re- 
venues and Dependance in the Pro- 
vinces, of great Credit and Alliance 
in Germany ; efteemed and honoured 
abroad, but at home infinitely lov*d 
and trufted by the People, who thought 
him affectionate to their Country, fm- 
cere in his Profeffions and Defigns, 
able and willing to defend their Liber- 
ties, and unlikely to invade them by 
any Ambition of his own. Yet all thefe 
Qualities might very well have been 
confined to the Duty and Services of a 
Subjeft, as they were in Charles the 
l^ifth*s time > Without the Abfence of 
the King> and the Peoples Opinion of 
his Ill-will to their Nation and their 
Laws J Without the Continuance of 
Foreign Troops after the Wars were 
ended ^ The crefting of the new Bi- 
lliops See5, and introducing the Inqtii- 
Jit ion i The fole Miniftry of GranveSy 


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Chap. L of the United Provinces. j ^ 

and Exclufion of the Lords from their 
ufual part in Councils and Affairs > The 
Government of a Man fo hated, as the 
Duke of je4/va } The Rigor of his Pro- 
fecutions, and the Infolence of his Sta- 
tue : And laftly, Without the Death of 
Egmonfj and the Impofition of the 
Tenth and Twentieth Part, againft the 
Legal Forms of Government in a Coun- 
try, where a long derived Succeffion 
had made the People fond and tenaci- 
ous of their ancient Cuftoms and Laws* 
Thefe were the Seeds of their Ha- 
tred to Spain y which, increafmg by 
the Courfe of about Threefcore Years 
War, was not allayed by a long fuc- 
ceeding Peace > but will appear to have 
hzen an Ingredient into the Fall, as it 
was into the Rife, of this$tate> which, 
having been thus planted, came to be 
cpnferved and cultivated by many 
Accidents and Influences from abroad : 
But thofe having had no part in the 
Conftitution of their State, nor the 
Frame of their Government -, I will 
content my felf to mention only the 
chief of them, which moft contributed 
to preferve the Infancy of this Com- 
monwealth, and make way for its 
Growth. The Caufes of its fucceeding 


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(5p The Rife and Progrefs Chap. I. 

Grcatncfs and Riches being not to be 
fought for in the Events of their Wars, 
but in the Inftitutions and Orders of 
their Government, their Cuftoms and 
Trade, which will make the Arguments 
of the enfuing Chapters. 

V<!\icnT>onJohn threw off the Gondii 
tions he had at hril: accepted of the Pacifi- 
cation ofGhenty and by the Surprife of 
Namur broke into Arms^ the Eftate of 
the Provinces offered the Government 
of their Country co Matthias y Brother to 
the Emperor, as a Temper between their 
return to the Obedience of Spain^ and 
the Popular Government which was 
moulding 'm the Northern Provinces. 
But Matthias arriving without the Adr 
vice or Support of the Emperor, or 
Credit in the Provinces j and having 
the Prince of Orange given him for 
his Lieutenant. General, was only a Cy- 
pher, and his Government ^ piece qf 
Pageantry, which paft without effeft, 
and was foon ended : So that, upon the 
Duke of Tarmas taking on him the 
Government, fome new Prote6tion was 
necelTary to this Infant-State, that had 
not Legs to fupport it againft fuch a 
Storm, as was threatened upon the FLc- 
purn oi the Sj^mijh and Italian For ccs^ 


Hosted by Google 

Chap, i. of the United Provinces. 6t 

to make the Body of a formidable Ar- 
my, vhich the Duke o? Tarma wa$ 
forming in Namur and Luxemhurgh. 

Since the Conference of Bayonne be- 
tween the Queen-Mother of France^ and 
her Daughter Queen o^ ^paiu} thofe 
two Crowns had continued, ift the 
Reign of Francis and Chdrles^ to affifl: 
one another in the common DeHgn there 
agreed on, of profccuting with Violence 
thofe they call'd the Hereticks, in both 
their Dominions, The Peace held con- 
ftant, if not kind, between England 
and Spain ; fo as King Thilip had no 
Wars upon his Hands in Chriftcndom, 
during thefe Commotions in the Low- 
Countries: And the Boldnefs of their 
Confederates, in their firfl: Revolt and 
Union, fcem'd greater at fuch a time, 
than theSuccefs of their Refiftances af- 
terwards, when fo many Occafions fell 
in to weaken and divert the Forces of 
the Spanijh Monarchy. 

For Henry the Third coming to the 
Crown o^ France y and at iirft only fet- 
tered and control'd by the Faction of 
the Guifes^ but afterwards engaged in 
an open War, (^which they had raifed 
againft him, upon pretext of pre- 
ferving the Catholick Rehgion> and m 

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€z The Rife and Progvefs Cliap^ L 

a Conjundion of Counfels with Spain) 
was forced into better meafures with 
the Hugonats of his Kingdom, and fell 
into ill Intelligence with Thilip the Se- 
cond, fo as Queen EUzabeth having 
declined to undertake openly the Pro- 
tection of the Low-Country Provinces, 
it was, by the concurring Refolution of 
the States, and the Confent of the 
French Court, devolved upon the Duke 
of Alencon^ Brother to Henry the 

But this Prince entered ^w^i^w/ with 
an ill Prefagc to the Flemings^ by an 
Attempt which a Bifcainer made, the 
fame day, upon the Prince of Orange's 
Life, (booting him, though not mortal* 
ly, in the Head : And He continued his 
(hort Government with fuch mutual 
Diftates between the French and the 
Flemings^ (the Heat and Violence of 
one Nation agreeing ill with the Cu- 
ftoms and Liberties of the other,} that 
the Duke, attempting to make himfelf 
abfolutc Mafter of the City o^ Antwerp 
by force, was driven out of the Town, 
and thereupon retired out of the Coun- 
try, with extream Retentment of the 
Flemings:^ and Indignation of the French ; 
fo as the Prince of Orange being not 


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chap. I. of the United Provinces. 6 3 

long after afTaflm'd at ^elph^ and the 
Duke of Tarma encreafing daily in Re- 
putation and in Force, and the Male- 
content Party falling back apace to his 
Obedience, an End was prefaged by 
mod Men to the Affairs of the Confe- 

But the Root was deeper, and not Co 
eafily (haken : For the United Trovin-^ 
ces^ after the unhappy Tranfaftions 
with the French^ under the Duke of 
Alencon^ rcaflum'd their Union in 1 5'83^ 
binding thcmfelves, in cafe, by fury of 
the War, any Point of it had not been 
obfcrvedj to endeavour from that time 
to fee it cffeftcd : In cafe any Doubt 
had happened, to fee it cleared : And a- 
ny Difficulties, compofed : And in re- 
gard the Article concerning Religion 
had been fo fram'd in the Union, be- 
caufe in all the other Provinces, befides 
Holland and Zealand^ the Romijh Re- 
ligion was then ufed, but now the £- 
vangelicah It was agreed by all the 
Provinces of the Union, That, from this 
time in them all, the Evangelical Re- 
formed Religion fliould alone be openly 
Preached and Exercifed 

They were fo far from being broken 
in their Dcfigns by the jPrince of 


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64 T^e Rife and Progrefs Chap. I. 

Orange's Death, that they did all the 
Honour that could be to his Memory, 
fubftitutcd Prince Maurice his Son, 
though but Sixteen Years old, in all his 
Honours and Commands, and obfti- 
nately refused all Overtures that were 
made them of Peace j rcfolving upon 
all the moil defperate Adions and Suf- 
ferings, rather than return under the 
Sp'dmjh Obedience. 

But thefe Spirits were fed and 
heightened, in a great degree, by the 
hopes and countenance given them a- 
bout this time from England: For Queen 
Elii^abeth^ and Philip the Second^ 
though they ftill preferved the Name 
of Peace, yet had worn out, in a man- 
ner, the EfFefts as well as the Difpofi- 
tions of it, whilft the Spaniard foment- 
ed and aflifted the Infurreftions of the 
Irijhy and Queen Elizabeth the new 
Commonwealth in the Low -Countries^ 
though neither direftly. yet by Coun- 
tenance, Mony, voluntary Troops, and 
ways that were equally felt on both 
fides, and equally underftood. 

King Philip had lately increafed the 
Grcatnefs of his Empire, by the Inhe- 
ritance or Invafion of the Kingdoms 
of Tortagaly upon King Sebajiian'^ Lofs 


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chap, I. of the United Provinces. 6$ 

in Africa: But I know not whether he 
had encreas'd his Power, by the Ac- 
cellion of a Kingdom, with difputed 
Title, and a difcontcnted People, who 
could neither be ufed like good Sub- 
jefts, and governed without Armiesj 
nor Hke a Conquered Nation, and fo 
made to bear the Charge of their for- 
ced Obedience. But this Addition of 
Empire, with the vaft Treafure flow- 
ing every Year out of the Indies y had 
without queftion raifed King Thilip's 
Ambition to vafter Defigns > which 
made him embrace at once, tht Pro- 
teftion of the League in France againft 
Henry the Third and Fourth, and the 
Donation made him of Ireland by the 
Pope, and fo embark himfelf in a War 
with both thofe Crowns^ while he was 
bearded with the open Arms and Defi- 
ance of his own Subjects in the Low- 

But 'tis hard to be imagined, how far 
the Spirit of one Great Man goes in 
the Fortunes of any Army or State. 
The Duke of Tarma coming to the 
Government without any footing in 
more than Two of the fmalledt Provin- I 

ces, collecting an Army from Sfain^ 
Italy 'i Germany^ and the broken Troops 
F of 

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€6 7he Rife and Progrefs Chap, L 

of the Country left him by T>on Johriy 
having all the other Provinces confe- 
derated againft him, and both England 
and Fra7ice beginning to take open 
part in their Defence •, y^t, by force of 
his own Valour^ Condud^ and the Di- 
fcipline of his Army 5 with the difin- 
terciTcd and generous Qualities of his 
Mind, winning equally upon the Hearts 
and Arms of the Revolted Countries, 
and piercing through the Provinces 
with an uninterrupted Courfe of Sue- 
ccfTes^ and the Recovery of the moft 
important Towns \n Flanders ; at lafty 
by the taking o^ Antwerp and Gromngue^ 
reduced the Affairs of the Union to 
fo extream Diftrefs, that, being grown 
deftitute of all Hopes and Succours from 
France^ (then deep engaged in their 
own Civil Wars,} They threw them- 
felves wholly at the P'eet of Queen 
Elizabeth:, imploring her Proteftion, and 
offering her the Sovereignty of their 
Country. The Queen refufed the 
Dominion, but entered into Articles 
with their Deputies in 1 58 f, obliging 
her felf to very great Supplies of Men 
and of Monies, lent them upon the 
Security of the Briely Flufhing^ and 
Ramekins s which were performed, and 


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chap. i. of the United Provinces. 6y 

Sir John Norrice fent over to command 
her Forces 5 and afterwards in 87, up- 
on the War broken out with SpaiUj and 
the mighty Threats of the Spantjh Ar- 
mada^ fhe fent over yet greater Forces 
under the Earl of Leicefter^ whom the 
States admitted, and fwore Obedience 
to him, as Governor of their United 

But this Government lafted not long, 
Diftaftcs and Sufpicions foon breaking 
out between Leicefter and the States j 
partly from the Jealoulie of his afFe£t- 
ing an Abfolute Dominion, and Arbi- 
trary Difpofal of all Offices > but chiefly j 
of the Queen's Intentions to make a 
Peace with Spain; and the eafie Lofs 
of fome of their Towns, by Governors 
placed in them by the Earl of Leicc- 
JfeTy encreafed their Difcontents. Not- 
withftanding this ill Intercourfe, the 
Queen re-aflures them in both thofc 
Pomts, difapproves fome of Leicejier's 
Proceedings, receives frank and hearty 
Afllftances from them in her Naval Pre- 
parations agsiinG: the Spaniards-} and 
at length, upon the Diforders encrea- 
ling between the Earl of Leice/ler and 
the States,: commands hilTi to refign his 
Government,: and releafcihe States. of 
F z the 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

6 8 The Rife and Progrefs Chap, t 

the Oath they had taken to obey him. 
And after all this had paft, the Queen 
cafily lacrificing all particular Relent- 
ments to the Intereft of her Crown, 
continued her Favour, Protection and 
Afliftances to the States, during the 
whole courfe of her Reign, which were 
returned with the greatefl Deference and 
Veneration to her Perfonj that was e- 
ver paid by them to any Foreign Prince, 
and continues ftill to Her Name in the 
Remembrance, and frequently in the 
Mouths, of all forts of People among 

After Leiceftefs Departure, Prince 
Maurice was, by the Confent of the 
Union, chofen their Governor^ but 
with a Refervation to Queen Elizabeth -^ 
and entered that Command with the 
Hopes, which he made good in the Ex- 
ecution of it for many Years •, proving 
the greateft Captain of his Age, famous, 
particularly, in the Difcipline and Or- 
donance of his Armies, and the ways 
of Fortification by him firft invented or 
pcrfefted, and iince his Time imitated 
by all. 

But the great Breath that was given 
the States in the Heat of their Affairs, 
was by the (harp Wars iiiade by Queen 


Hosted by Google 

chap* L of the United Provinces. 69 

Elizabeth upon the Spaniards at Sea 
in the Indies^ and the Expedition of 
Lisbon and CadtZ:.^ and by the declin- 
ing Affairs of the League in France^ 
for whofe Support Th^lip the Second 
was fo paflionately engag'd, that twice 
he commanded the Duke of Tarma 
to interrupt the Courfe of his Vidp- 
ries in the Low-Countries^ and march 
into France for the Relief of Roan and 
^aris ', which much augmented the Re- 
nown of this great Captain, but as 
much impair d the State of the Spanijh 
Affairs '\\\ Fianders, For in the Duke 
of Parma's Abfence, Prince Maurice 
took in all the Places held by the Spa- 
niard on t' other fide the Rhine^ which 
gave them entrance into the United 

The Succeilion o^ Henry the Fourth 
to the Crown oi France^ gave a mighty 
Blow to the Defigns of King "P/^i/z/i 
and a much greater, the general Obedi- 
ence and Acknowledgment of him up- 
on his Change of Religion. With this 
King, the States began to enter a Confi- 
dence and Kindnefs, and the more by 
that which interceded between Him 
and the Queen of England-^ who had 
all their Dependance during her Life. 
F 3 But,> 

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7 o The Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

But, after her Death, King Henry 
grew to have greater Credit than ever 
m the United 'Trovmces } tho% upon 
the Decay of the SpaniJJo Power under 
the Afcendant of this King> the States 
fell into very early Jealoufies of his 
growing too great, and too near theni 
in Flanders, 

With the Duke of Tarma dy'd all 
the Difciphne, and, with that, all the 
Fortunes, of the Spantjh Arms in Flan- 
ders : The frequent Mutinies of their 
Soldiers, dangerous in Effect and in Ex- 
ample, were more talked of, than any 
other of their Adions,.in the (fiort Go- 
vernment Q^' Mansfield^ Ernefi^ and Fu- 
entes, 'Till the old Difcipline of their 
Armies began to revive, and their For- 
tune a little to refpire under the new 
Government of Cardinal Albert ^ X^^ho 
came into Flanders both Governor a|id 
Prince of the Low-Countriesy in ^ the 
Head of a mighty Army drawn out 
of Germany zna Italy ^ to try the laft 
Effort of the i$)!>^^//^ Power, either in 
a profperous War, or, at leaft, in ma- 
king way for a necefTary Peace. 

But the Choice of the Arch-Duke, 
and this new Authority, had a deeper 
Root, and Defign, than at firfl: appeared : 


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chap. L of the United Provinces. 7 1 

For that mighty King Thilip the Se- 
cond^ born to io vaft Pofleffions^ and 
to fo much vafter E>cfires, after a long 
Dream of railing his Head into the 
Clouds^ found it now ready to lye 
down in the Duft: His Body broken 
with Age and Infirmities^ his Mind with 
Cares and diftemper'd Thoughts^) and 
the Royal Servitude of a follicitous Life : 
He began to fee, in the Glafs of Time, 
and Experience, the true (liapes of all 
human Greatnefs and Defigns; And> 
finding to what airy Figures he had hi- 
therto facriliced his Health, and Eafe, 
and the Good of his Life 3 He now 
turn'd his Thoughts wholly to Reft and 
Quiet, which he had never yet allowed 
cither the World, or Himfelf : His De- 
iigns upon England., and his Invincible 
Armada, had ended in Smoak : Thofe 
wY^on France^ in Events the moft con- 
trary to what he had proposed: And 
inftead of mattering the Liberties, and 
breaking the Stomach of his Low-Coun- 
try Subjeds, he had loft Seven of his 
Provinces, and held the reft by the Te- 
nure of a War, that coft him more than 
they were worth. He had made lately 
a Peace with England^ and defir^d it 
with Fr^^r^i and though he fcornM 
Y ^ it 

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^ 2, Ihe Rife and Progrefs Chap. I, 

it with his revolted Subjefts in his own 
Name •, yet he wiflVd it in another's •, 
and was unwiUing to entail a Quarrel 
upon his Son, which had croft his For- 
tunc$5 and bufied his Thoughts all the 
courfe of his Reign. He therefore re- 
folv'd to commit thefc two Defigns to 
the Management of Arch-Duke Albert^ 
with the Stile of Governor and Prince 
of the Low -Count r ie s ^^ to the end^that, 
if he could reduce the Provinces to 
their old Subjeftion, he fhould govern 
them as Spanijh Dominions ^ if that was 
once more in vain attempted, he (liould 
by a Marriage with Clara Ifabella Eu- 
genia (King "Philip's beloved Daughter} 
receive thele Provinces as a Dowry, 
and become the Prince of them, with 
a Condition only, of their returning to 
Spain:, in cafe of Jfabella's dying with- 
out IfTue. King Thilip bcliev'a, that 
the Prefence of a natural Prince among 
his Subjefts^ that the Birth and Cu- 
ftoms of Arch-Duke Albert^ being a 
German ^ the generous and obliging 
Pifpofitions oi Jfabella^ Plight gain fur- 
ther upon this ftubborn JPeqple,than all 
the Force and Rigor of his former 
Counfels : And at the worft ^ that 
they might make a Peace, if they could 


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chap. I. of the United Provinces. 7 3 

DOt a War, and without intcrefling the 
Honour and Greatnef^^ of the Spanijh 


In purfuic of this Determination, like 
a wife King, while he intended nothing 
but Peace, he n^^ade Preparations, as if 
he defign'd nothing but War> know- 
ing that hisownDefire^ of Peace would 
fignifie nothing, unlefs he could force 
his Enemies to defire it too. He there^ 
fore fent the Arch-Duke into Flanders^ 
at the Head of fuch an Army, that, be- 
lieving the Peace with France muft be 
the firft in order, and make way for 
either the War or Peace afterward in 
the Low-Countries^ he march'd into 
France^ and took Amiens the Chief 
City o^Ticardyy and thereby gave fuch 
an Alarm to the French Court, as they 
little expcdted ^ and had never recei- 
ved in the former Wars. But while 
Albert bent the whole Force pf the 
War upon Frafjce^ 'till he determined 
it in a Peace with that Crown, Prince 
Maurice^ who had taken Groningue in 
the time of Erneji^ now mafter'd Ling- 
hen^ Grolly and other Places in Over- 
yjfely thereby adding thofe Provinces 
intire, to the Body of the Union j and 
af Albert^ Return into Flanders^ enter- 

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74 ^h^ ^ifi and Pragrefs Cliap. I. 

tain'd him with the Battel of Newport y 
won by the dcfperate Courage of the 
EnglijJoy under Sir Francis Verey where 
Albert ^^zs wounded^ and very near 
being taken. 

After this Lof53 the Arch- Duke was 
yet comforted and relieved by the ob- 
icquious Affeftions and Obedience of 
his new Subjefts, fo far as to refolve 
upon the Siege of OJiend; which ha- 
ving fome time continued, and being 
almoft didiearten^d by the Strength of 
the Place, and invincible Courage of 
the Defendants, He was recruited by 
a Body of Eight Thqufand Italians^ 
under the Marquefs Spinola^ to whom 
the Profecution of this Siege was com- 
mitted: He took the Place, after Three 
Years Siege, not by any want of Men 
or Provifions within, (xht Haven, and 
Rehef by Sea, being open all the time 5) 
but perfectly for want of Ground, 
which was gain'd Foot by Foot, *till 
not fo much was left, as would hold 
Men to defend it j a great Example, 
how impofliblc it is to defend any Town, 
that cannot be relieved by an Army 
ftrong enough to raife the Siege. 

Prince Maurieey though he could not 
fave OJiendy made yet amends for its 


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Chap.L 0/ ?/?^ United Provinces. 75 

Lofsy by the taking of Grave and Sluyce-^ 
fo as the Spaniards gain*d little but the 
Honour of the Enterprife : And Thilip 
the Second being dead, about the time 
of the Arch-Duke's and Dutchefs's Ar- 
rival inFlanderSyznd^ with him thePer- 
fonal Refentment of that War, the Arch- 
Duke, by confent of the Spa^iijhQomU 
began to apply his Thoughts wholly to 
a Peace •, which another Circumftance 
had made more necefTary, than any of 
thofe already mentioned. 

As the "l^utch Commonwealth was 
born out of the Sea> fo out of the 
fame Element it drew its firft Strength 
and Confideration, as well as afterwards 
its Riches and Greatnefs: For before 
the Revolts, the Subjects of the Low- 
Countries:, though never allow'd the 
Trade of the Indies^ but in the S^a- 
ptjh Fleets, and under Spanijh Covert, 
yet many of them had in that manner 
made the Voyages, and become skilful 
Pilots, as well as vers'd in the ways, 
and fenfible of the infinite Gains of 
that Trade. And after the Union, a 
greater Confluence of People falhng 
down into the United "Trovinces^ than 
could manage their Stock, or find Em- 
ployment at Land j great Multitudes 


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7^ The Rife and Progrefs Chap. I, 

turn'd their Endeavours to Sea -, and, 
haying loft the Trade of Spam and 
the Streights^ fell not only into that 
of England^ France^ and the Northern 
SeaS) but ventured upon that of the 
Eaji-lndies^ at firft with fmall Forces 
and Succefs ; but in courfe of time, 
and by the Inftitution of an Eajl-India 
Company, this came to be purfu'd 
with fo general Application of the Pro- 
vinces, and fo great Advantage, that 
they made themfelves Mafters of moft 
of the Colonies and Forts planted 
there by th^Tortuguefe^ (^now Subjects 
of Spam?) The T>utch Seamen grew 
as well acquainted with thofe vaft Seas 
and Coafts, as with their own j and 
Holland became the great Magazine 
of all the Commodities of thofe Eaftcrn 

In the Weft-Indies their Attempts 
were neither fo frequent nor profpe- 
rous, the Spanifth Plantations there iDe- 
ing too numerous and ftrong^ but by 
the multitude of their Shipping, itt out 
with publick or private Commiilions, 
they infefted the Seas, and began tq 
wait for, and threaten, the Spanijh In- 
dian Fleets, and fometimes to attempt 
their Coafts in that new World (^which 



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chap. I- of the United I^rovinces^ fy; 

was to touch S^ain in the mod fenfibfe 
Part,) and gave their Court the ftrong- 
eft Motives to endeavour a Peace, that 
might fecure thofe Treafures in their 
way, and prcferve them in Spain^ by 
(topping the IfTue of thofe vaft Sums, 
which were continually tranfmitted to 
entertain the Low-Country Wars. 

Thefe^Refpcfts gave the firft Rife to 
a Treaty of Peace, the Propofal wh'::re- 
of calmc wholly from the Spaniards i 
and the very Mention of it could 
hardly at firft be faftened upon the 
States > nor could they ever be pre- 
vail'd with to make way for any Ne- 
gotiation by a Sufpenfion of Arms, ''till 
the Arch-Duke had declared, He would 
treat with them as with Free Provinces^ 
upon whom, neither he, nor Spain had 
any Pretence, However, the Aftair 
was purfued with fo much Art and 
Induftry on the Arch-Duke's part, and 
with fo paflionate Defires of the Spa- 
nijh Court, to end this War, that they 
were content to treat it ^t tht Hague ^ 
the Seat of the States- General ^ and^ 
for the greater Honour, and better 
Gonduft of the whole Bufmefs, ap-- 
pointed the Four chief Minifters of the 
Arch- Duke's, their Commiflioners to 


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78 The Rife and Progrefs Chip, L 

attend and purfuc it there y who were, 
Their Camp-Mafter-General Spinohy 
The Prelident of the Council, and the 
Two Secretaries of State;) and of War 
in Flanders, 

On the other fide, m Holland all the 
Paces towards this Treaty were made 
with pgreat Coldnefs and Arrogance, 
raifing punctilious Difficulties upon e- 
very Word of the Arch-Duke's Dec! ae- 
ration of Treating them as free Provin- 
ces, and upon Spain's Ratification of 
that Form 5 and forcing them to fend 
ExprelTcs into Spain^ upon every occa- 
iion, and to attend the length of thofe 
Returns. For the profperous Succefs 
of their Arms at Land, in the courfe of 
above Thirty Years War, and the migh- 
ty Growth of their Naval Power, and 
(under that Protection) of their Trade, 
had made the whole Body of their Mi- 
litia, both at Land and Sea, averfc 
from this Treaty, as well as the greateft 
part of the People j whofe inveterate 
Hatred againft Spain was ftill as fierce 
as €ver j and who had the Hopes or 
Difpofitions of raifing their Fortunes 
by : the War, whereof they had fo ma- 
ny and great Examples among them. 


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Chap.L i?/ ir/?^ United Provinces, 75) 

But there was>at the bottom, one Fo-- 
reigrir and another Domeftick, Confide- 
ration, which made way for this Treaty, 
more than all thofe Arguments that 
were the common Theams, or than all 
the Offices of the Neighbour-Princes,, 
who concerned themfeivcs in this Af- 
fair, either from Intereft of their own, 
or the Defires of ending a War, which 
had fo long exercised, in a manner, the 
Arms of all ChriftendomupontheStage 
oitht Low-Cotmtries, TheGreatncfs of 
the j/>^2:;^//& Monarchy, fo formidable un- 
der C;6^r/^:f the Fifth, ^ndThilip the Se- 
cond, began now to decline by the vaft 
Defigns, and unfortunate Events, of fo 
many ambitious Counfels : And, on the 
other fide, the Affairs oi Henry the Fourth 
of France were now at the greateft 
Height and FcHcity,after having atchicv- 
ed fo many Adventures, with incredi- 
ble Conftancy and Valour, and ended all 
his Wars in a Peace with Spain. The 
Dtitch imagined, that the hot Spirits of 
the French could not continue long 
without fome Excrcifc •, and that to 
prevent it at home, it might be necefla- 
ry for that King to give it them abroad: 
That no Enterprife lay fo convenient for 
him> as that viiponFlanders^y whick had 


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8o %e Rife and Progrefs Chap.L 

anciently been part of the Gallkk Na- 
tion, and whole firft Princes derived 
and held of the Kings of France, Be- 
fides, they had Intimations, that Henry 
the Fourth was taken up in great Pre- 
parations for War, which they doubted 
would at one time or other fall on that 
fide, at leaft, if they were invited by a- 
ny greater Decays of the Spantjh Power 
in Flanders : And they knew very well^ 
theyfliould lie as much at the Mercy of 
fuch a Neighbour as France ^ as they had 
formerly done of fuch a Mafter ^s Spain, 
For the Spanijh Power in Flanders was 
fed by Treafures that came by long and 
perilous Voyages out of Spain ^ by 
Troops drawn either from thence^ or 
from Italy or Germany^ with much Ca- 
fualty, and more Expenc'e : Their Ter- 
ritory of the Ten Provinces was fmall^ 
and awed by the Neighbourhood and 
Jealoufies both of England and France. 
But if France were once Mafter of 
Flanders^ the Body of that Empire 
would be fo great, and fo entire > fo 
abounding in People, and in Riches^ 
that whenever they found, or made, an 
occafion of invading the United Trovin- 
ces^ they had no hopes of preferving 
themfelves by any Oppofitionor Diverfi- 


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chap,!. ()/*7^^ United Provinces. 8i 

on: And the end of their mighty Re- 
fiftances againft Spain was, to have no 
Mafterj and not to change one for 
another, as they (hould do in tliis cafe : 
Therefore the moil InteUigent among 
their Civil Miniftcrs thought it fafeft, 
by a Peace, to give Breath to the Arch- 
Duke's and Spanifh Power^ and by that 
means, to leflen the Invitation of the 
Arms o^ France into Flandersy under fo 
great a King. 

For what was Domeftick, the Cre- 
dit and Power of Prince Matirice^ built 
at firft upon that of his Father, but 
Jmuch raisM by his own Perfonal Vir- 
tue and Qualities, and the Succefs of 
his Armes, was now grown fo high 
(the Prince being Governor or Stadt- 
holder of Four of the Provinces > and 
Two of his Coufins of the other Three,} 
that feveral of the States, headed by 
Barnevelt^ Peniioner o^ Holland^ and a 
Man of great A biU ties and Authority 
among them, became jealous of the 
Prince's Power, and pretended to fear 
the Growth of it to an abfolute Do- 
minion : They knew, it would increafe 
by the continuance of a War, which 
was wholly managed by the Prince ^ 
and thought, that in a Peace it wQUld 
G diminifh^^ 

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8 1 7he Rife and Progrefs Chap. 1 

diminitli^ and give way to the Autho- 
rity of Civil Power : Which difpos'd 
this whole Party to defire the Treaty, 
and to advance the Progrefs and Ifluc 
of it by all their Affiftanccs. And thefc 
different Humors ilirring in the Heart 
of the StateS) with almoft equal Strength 
and Vigor-, the N-gotiarion of a Peace 
came to be eluded, after long Debates 
ani infinite Endeavours^ breaking, in 
appearance, upon the Points of Reli- 
gion, and the: Indian Trade: But yet 
came to knit again, and conclude in a 
Truce of Twelve Years, dated m the 
Year 1605), whereof the moft eflential 
Points were. The Declaration of Treat- 
ing with them as Free Provinces ; The 
Ceflation of all Afts of Hoftility oii 
both fides, during the Truce-, The En- 
joyment for that fpace, of all that each 
Party poffefs'd at the time of the Treaty > 
That no new Fortification fhould be 
rais'd on either iidc : And that free 
Commerce (hould be reftor'd on all 
Parts in the fame manner, as it was be- 
fore the Wars, 

And thus the State of the United 
Provinces came to be acknowledged, as 
a Ffee Commonwealth by their ancient 
Mafter, having before been Treated fo 


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Chcip. I. of the United Provinces. 8 3 

by moft of the Kings and Princes of 
Europe^ in frequent Emballies and Ne- 
gotiations. An:ong which^ a particular 
Preference was given to the Englijb 
Crown, whofe Ambaflador had Sellion 
and Vote in their Council of State, by 
Agreement with Queen Elizabeth^ and 
in Acknowledgment of thofe great Af- 
fiftances, which gave Life to their State, 
when it was upon the point of expi- 
ring: Though t\itT>Htch pretend, that 
Privilege was given to the Ambafla- 
dor, by Virtue of the Pofleflion this 
Crown had of the Briel^ Flujhing and 
Ramekins j and that it was to ceafe up- 
on the Reftitution of thofe Towns, 
and Repayment of thofe Sums lent by 
the Queen. 

In the very time of Treating this 
Truce, a League wts concluded between 
Henry the Fourth of France^ and the 
States, for preferving the Peace, if ir 
came to be concluded j or, in cafe of 
its failing, for Afliftance of one another, 
with Ten Thoufand Men on the King's 
part, and Five Thoufand on the States. 
Nor did that King make any Difficuliy 
of continuing the Two Regiments of 
Foot, and Two Hundred Horfe in the 
States Service, at his own Charge, after 
G 2 th@ 

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§4 The Rife and Progvefs Chap.t. 

the Truce, which he had maintained 
for feveral Years before it: Omitting 
no Provifions that might tie that Srate 
to his Interefts, and make him at pre- 
fent Arbiter of the Peace, and for the 
future of the War, if the Truce fhould 
come to be broken, or to expire of it 

By what has been related, it will ea- 
fily appear, That no State was ever 
born with ftronger Throws, or nurft up 
with harder fare, or inur'i to greater 
Labours or Dangers in the whole courfe 
of its Youth •, which are Circumftances 
that ufually make ftrong and healthy 
Bodies : And fo this has proved, hav- 
ing never had more than one Difeafe 
break out, in the fpace of Ninety Three 
Years, which may be accounted the Age 
of this State, reckoning from the Union 
of Utrecht^ entered by the Provin- 
ces in if7p. But this Difeafe, hkc 
thofe of the Seed, or Conception, in a 
natural Body, though it firft appeared 
in Barnevelfs time, breaking out upon 
the Negotiations with Spaitiy and feem- 
ed to end with his Deaths (^who was 
beheaded not many Years after;) yet 
has it ever fince continued lurking in 
the Veins of this State, and appearing 


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chap. L of the United Provinces. %^ 

upon all Revolutions, that feem to fa- 
vour the Predominancy of the one or 
other Humor in the Bo Jy> and undx 
the Names of the Prince of Orange's^ 
and xht Armmiafi Parry, has ever made 
the weak fide of this State ^ and when- 
ever their Period comes> will prove the 
Occafion of their Fall. 

The Ground of this Nam,e of Ar- 
menian was, That whilfl: Barnevelfs 
Party accufed thofe of the Prince of 
Orange'Sy as being carelefs of their Li- 
berties, fo dearly bought ^ as devoted 
to the Ho lie of Orange y and difpofed 
to the Admiflion of an abfolute Princi- 
pality, and in order thereunto, as Pro- 
moters of a perpetual War with Spain : 
So thofe of the Prince's Party, accufed 
the others, as leaning ftill to, and looking 
kindly upon, their old Servitude, and 
relifhing the Spaniardy both in their 
Politicks, by fo eagerly affeding a 
Pca.:e with that Crown ^ and in their 
Religion, by being generally Armini- 
ans^ (which was efteemed the middle 
part between the Calvinifls and the 
Ro7nan Religion.) And befides thefe 
mutual Reproaches, the two Parties 
have ever valued themfelvcs upon the 
aflerting, one of the true and purer 
G 3 Re- 

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g(^ The Rife and Progrefs Chap.L 

Reformed Religion ^ and the other, 
of the truer and freer Liberties of the 

The Fortunes of this Commonwealth, 
that have happened in their Wars or 
Negotiations, fince the Truce with 
Spam^ and what Circumftances or Ac- 
cidents, both abroad and at home, ferv'd 
to cultivate their mighty Growth, and 
confpired to the Greatnefs wherein they 
appeared to the World in the Beginning 
of the Year i(>65', being not only the 
Subject of the Relations, but even the 
Obiervations, of this prefent Age-, I 
fliall either leave, as more obvious, and 
lefs necejflTary to the Account I intend 
of the Civil Government of this Com- 
monwealth : Or clfe referve them 'till 
the fame Vein of Leifure or Humour 
invite mc to continue this Deduction 
to this prefent time^ the Affairs of this 
State having been complicated with all 
the Variety and memorable Revoluti- 
ons, both of Actions andCounfels, that 
have fmce happened in the refl of Chri- 

In the mean time, I will clofe this 
Relation with an Event, which arrived 
foon after the Conclufion of the Truce, 
and had like to have broken it within 


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chap. I. of the United Provinces. §7 

the very Year, if not prevented by rhe 
Offices of the Neighbour Princes, but 
more by a Change of Humour in the 
United States, confpiring to the Con- 
fervation of the new-rcllored Peace in 
thefe Parts of the Worl J. 

In the end of the Year 1609, died 
the Duke of Cleves and Jidiers^ with-' 
out Heir-Male, leaving thofe Dutchies 
to the Pretenfions of his Daughters, in 
wbofe Right the Dukes of Branden- 
burgh and Nieuburgh pofleff.d them- 
felves of fuch Parts of chofe Territo- 
ries as they firffc could invade-, each of 
them pretending Right to the whole In- 
heritance. Brandenburgh feeks Prote- 
ction and Favour to his Title from the 
United Provinces j Nieuburgh from 
Arch'Dukc j^lbert^ zndhom Spain, The 
Arch-Duke, newly refpiring from fo 
long a War, had no defire to interefs 
himf.lf in thisQuarrel^ further than the 
care, that the T^utch (hould not take 
Advantage of it^ and, under pretext of 
aflifting one of the Parties, feifc upon 
fome of thofe Dominions lying conti- 
guous to their own. The T^utch were 
not fo equal, nor content to lofe fo fair 
^n occafion, and furprifed the Town of 
JuUerSy (tho' pretending only to keep 
G 4 it 

Hosted by Google 

g g %}je Rife and Progrefs Chap. L 

it ■till the Parties' agreed:) And believ- 
ing that Spain y after haying parted 
with fo much in the late Truce, to end 
a Quarrel of their own, would not 
venture a Breach of it upon a Quarrel 
of their Neighbours. But the Arch- 
Duke having firft taken his Meafures 
with Spaifiy and forefeeing the Confc- 
quence of this Affair, refolved to ven- 
ture the whole State oi Flanders in a 
new War, rather than fuffer fuch anEn- 
creafe of Power and Dominion to the 
States. And thereupon, Firft, in the 
Behalf of the Duke of Nieuburgh^ re^ 
quires from them the Reftitution ofy^- 
//Vrj-i and upon their artificious and 
dilatory Anfwers, immediately draws 
his Forces together, and with an Army, 
under the Command oiSpinolay marches 
towards Juliet Sy ("which the States 
were in no care of, as well provided 
for a bold Defence*,} but makes a fud- 
den Turn> and fits down before JVefel^ 
with fuch a Terror and Surprife to the 
Inhabitants, that he carries the Town 
before the T^utch could come in to 
their Ailiftance. Wefel was a ftrong 
Town upon the Rhine y which the 
Duke o? Brandenburgh pretended to, 
as belpnging to the Dutchy of Cleves 


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chap. I. of the United Provinces. B^ 

but the Citizens held at this time as 
an Imperial Town> and under Prote- 
aion of the T)utch : Whoy amazed at 
this fudden and bold Attempt of Spf- 
nolaj which mad^ him Mafter of a Pafs 
that lay fair for any further Invafion 
upon their Provinces, (efpecially thofe 
on t' other fide the Rhtne^^ ^^g^g^ ^^^ 
Offices of both the Englijh and French 
Crowns, to mediate an Agreement, 
which at length they conclude, fo as 
neither Party fhpuld, upon any pretence, 
draw their Forces into any part of 
thefe Dutchies. Thus the Arch-Duke 
having, by the fondnefs of Peace, new- 
ly maae a Truce, upon Conditions im- 
posed by the U^utch ; now, by the Re- 
folution of making War, obtains a Peace, 
upon the very Terms proposed by him- 
felf, and by Spam. An Event of great 
Inftruftion and Example, how dange- 
rous it ever proves for weak Princes to 
call in greater to their Aid, which makes 
them a Prey to their Friend, inftead of 
their Enemy : How the only time of 
making an advantageous Peace, isy 
when your Enemy defircs it, and 
when you are in the beft condition 
of purfuing a War : And how vain a 


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€^o the Rife and Progrefsy Sec. Chap. I. 

Counfei it is, to avoid a War, by yields 
ing any Poirjt of Intereft or Honour > 
which does but invite new Injuries, 
encourage JEnemies, and diftiearte^ 


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Of their Government. 

IT is evident by what has been di[- 
courfed in the former Chapter con- 
cerning the Rife of this State, (which 
is to be dated from the Union of U- 
trecht') that it cannot properly be fty- 
ied a Commonwealth, but is rather a 
Confederacy of Seven Sovereign Pror 
yinces united together for their com- 
mon and mutual Defence, without any 
Dependance one upon the other. But 
to difcover the Nature of their Govern- 
ment from the firft Springs and Mo- 
tions, it muft be taken yet into fmaller 
Pieces, by which it will appear, that 
each of thefe Provinces is likewife 
compofed of many Httle States or Ci- 
ties, which have feveral Marks of So- 
vereign Power within themfelves, and 
are not fubjed- to the Sovereignty of 
their Provinces 5 not being concluded 
in many things by the Majority, but only 
by the univcrfal Concurrence of Voices 
in the Provincial States. For as the 
States-General cannot make War or 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

5> z Of their Government. Chap. II, 

Peace 5 or any new Alliance, or Le- 
vies of Mony, without the Confent 
of every Province ^ fo cannot the 
States- Provincial conclude of any of 
thofe Points, without rhc Confent of 
each of the Cities, that, by their Contli- 
tution, has a Voice in that AfTembly. 
And tho* in many Civil Caufes there 
lies an Appeal from the common Judi- 
cature of the Cities, to the Provincial 
Courts of Juftice ; yet in Criminal, 
there lies none at all ^ nor can the So- 
vereigncy of a Province exercife any 
Judicature, fcife upon any Offender, 
or pardon any Offence within the Ju- 
rifdidion of a City, or execute any 
common Refolution or Law, but by 
the Juftice and Officers of the City it 
felf By this a certain Sovereignty in 
each City is difcerned, the chief Marks 
whereof are. The Power of exercifing 
Judicature, levying of Mony, and ma- 
king War and Peace : For the other, of 
Coining Mony, is neither in particular 
Cities or Provinces, but in the gene- 
rality of the Union, by common A- 

The main Ingredients therefore into 
the Compofition of this State, are the 
Freedom of the Cities, the Sovereignty 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. 11. of their Gouefnment. p^ 

of the Provinces, the Agreements or 
Conftirutions of the Union, and the 
Authoriry of the Princes of Orange: 
Which make the Order I (hall follow in 
the Account intended of this Govern* 
ment. But whereas, the icveral Pro- 
vinces in the Union, and the feveral 
Cities in each Province, as they have^ 
in their Orders and Conftitutions, fome 
particular Differences, as well as a ge- 
neral Refemblance ^ and the account of 
each diftindlly would fwell this Difcourfe 
out of meafure, and to little purpole: 
I (hall confine my felf to the Account of 
Holland^ as the rich^ft, ftrongeft, anc! 
of moft Authority among the Provin- 
ces 3 2Xi^ o^ Amflerdam^ as that which 
has the fame Preheminencies among the 

The Sovereign Authority of the Ci- Q^m^ 
ty oi Jmprdam, confifts, in the De-^^* 
crees or Refults of their Senate, which fterdam, 
is composed of Six and Thirty Men, by 
whom the Juftice is adminiiier'd, ac- 
cording to ancient Forms J in the names 
of Officers, and Places of Judicature. 
But Monies are Levied by Arbitrary 
Refolutions, and Proportions, according 
to what appears convenient or necefla- 
ry ilpoa the Change or Emergency of 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

P4 ^f their Gouev^ment. Chap. IL 

occafions. Thefe Senators arc for their 
Lives, and the Senate was anciently 
chofen by the Voices of the richer 
Burghers, or Freemen of the City, 
who upon the Death of a Senator met 
together, either in a Church, a Mar- 
ket, or fome other Place fpacious e- 
nough to receive their Numbers > and 
there made an Eledlion of the Perfon 
to fucceed, by the majority of VoiceSo 
But about a Hundred and Thirty, or 
Forty Years ago, when the Towns of 
Holland began to increafe in Circuity 
and in People, fo as thofe frequent Af- 
femblies grew into danger of Tumult 
and Diforder upon every occafion, by 
reafon of their Numbers and Conten- 
tion J this Eleftion of Senators came^ 
by the Refolution of the Burghers, in 
one of their General Aflemblics, to be 
devolved for evcr^ upon the (landing- 
Senate at that time ^ fo, as ever fincc, 
when any one of their number dies, a 
new one is chofen by the rcil of the 
Senate, without any Intervention^ of 
the other Burghers 3 which makes the 
Government a fort of Oligarchi:^ and 
very different from a popular Govern- 
ment, as it is generally efteem'd by 
thofe, who, paiTmg or living in thefc 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

Chap- II. Of their Government. 9$ 

Countries 5 content themfelvcs with 
common Obfervations, or Inquiries, 
And this Refolution of the Burghers^ 
either was agreed upon^ or followed 
by general Confent or Example^ about 
the fame time^ in all the Towns of the 
Province, tho* with fome difference m 
number of their Senators. 

By this Senate are chofcn the chief 
Magiftrates of the Town, which are 
the Burgomafters, and the Efchevins: 
The Burgomafters of Amfterdam are 
Four, whereof Three are chofen every 
Year 5 fo as one of them ftays in Office 
Two Years ^ but the Three laft chofen^ 
are call'd the Refgning-Burgomafters 
for that Year, and prefide by turns, 
after the firft Three Months v for fo long 
after a new Eleftion, the Burgomafter 
of the Year before prefidesj in which 
time it is fuppos'd the new ones will 
grow inftruded in the Forms and Du- 
ties of their Office, and acquainted 
with the State of the Cities Affairs. 

The Burgomafters are chofen by 
moft Voices of all thofe Perfons in the 
Senate, who have been citlrr Burgo- 
mafters or Efchevins *, and their Au- 
thority refembles that of the Lord 
Mayor and Aldermen in our Cities. 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

5^6 of their Government. Chap IL 

They reprefent the Dignity of the Go-^ 
vernment, and do the Honour of the 
City upon all Occafions. They difpofe 
of all Under-Offices that fall in their 
time> and ifliie out all Monies out of 
the common Stock or Treafure, judg- 
ing alone what is nccelfary for the 
Safety^ Convenience, or Dignity of the 
City. They keep the Key of the Bank 
of Amjlerdam^ (the common Treafure 
of fo many Nations,} which is never 
open'd without the Prefence of one of 
them : And they infpeft and purfue all 
the great jPubUck Works of the City^ 
as the Ramparts and Stadt-houfe^ now 
almoft iiniflied, with fo great Magnifi- 
cence, and fo vaft Expence. 

This Office is a Charge of the great- 
eftTruft, Authority, and Dignity > and 
fo much the greater, by not being of 
Profit or Advantage, but only as a 
way to other conftant Employments m 
the City, that are fo. The Salary of a 
Burgomafter oi Amfterdamy is but Five 
Hundred Gilders a Year, thoygh there 
are Offices worth FiveThoufand in their 
Difpofal J but yet none of them known 
to have taken Mony upon fuch occa- 
fions, which would lofe all their Cre- 
dit in the Town^ and thereby their 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. It Of their Go^ernmeni. ^y 

Fortunes by any Publick Employments. 
They are obliged to no fort of Expence 
more than ordinary modeft Citizens, in 
their Habits, their Attendance, their 
Tables, or any part of their own Do- 
meftick. They are upon all Publick Oc- 
cafions waited on by Men in Salary from 
the Town > and whatever Feafts they 
make upon folemn Days, or for the 
Entertainment of any Princes or Fo- 
reign Minifters, the Charge is defray- 
ed out of the Common 1 reafure^ but 
proportioned by their own Difcretion. 
At other times, they appear in all Pla- 
ces with the Simplicity and Modefty of 
other private Citizens. When the Bur- 
gomaftcr's Office expires, they are of 
courfe difposM into the other Charges 
or Employments of the Towns, which 
are very many and beneficial > unlefs they 
l6fe their Credit with the Senate, by ^ 
any want of Diligence or Fidelity in 
the Difcharge of their Office, which 
feldom arrives. 

The Efchevins are the Court of Ju- 
ftice in, every Town. They are at 
Amjierdam Nine in Number j of which 
Seven are chofen Annually 5 but Two 
of the preceding Year continue in Of- 
fice. A double Number is named by 

H the 

Hosted by Google 

c) 8 of their Go^uernmenti Chap. \h 

the Senate, out of which the Burgo- 
mafters now chufe, as the Prince of 
Orange did in the former Conftitution, 
They are Sovereign Judges in all Cri- 
minal Caufes. In Civil, after a cer- 
tain value, there lies Appeal to the 
Court of Juftice of the Province. But 
they pafs Sentence of Death upon no 
Man, without firft advifing with the 
BurgomaftcrS} tho% after that Form 
is paft, they proceed themfelves, and 
are not bound to follow the Burgo- 
mailers Opinion, but are left to their 
own : This being only a Care or Fa- 
vour of Supererogation to the Life of 
Man, which is fo foon cut off, and ne- 
ver to be retrieved or made amends 

Under thefe Sovereign Magiftrates, 
the chief fubordinate Officers of the 
Town, are the Treafurers, who receive 
and iflue out all Monies that are pro-' 
perly the Revenues or Stock of the 
City : The ^ Scouts who takes care of 
the Peace, feifes all Criminals, and 
fees the Sentences of Juftice executed^ 
and whofe Authority is like that of a 
Sheriff in a County with us, or a 
Conftable in a Parifh. The Tenjioner^ 
wko i^ a Civil-Lawyer, vers'd in the 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. II. of their Government. jpp 

Cuftoms, and Records^ and Privileges 
of the Town, concerning which he 
informs the Magiftracy upon occalion, 
and Y'm6ic2itcs them upon Difputes 
with other Towns ^ he is a Servant of 
the Senate and the BurgomaflcrS;, de- 
hvers their MefTagcs, makes their Ha- 
rangues upon all Fubhck Occafions, and 
is npt unlike the Recorder in one of our 

In this City o^ Amfterdam is the fa- 
mous Bank> which is the greaceft Trea^ 
fure, cither real or imagmary, that is 
known any where in the World. The 
place of it is a great Vault under the 
Stadthoufe, made flrong witlvall the 
Circumftances of Doors and Locks, 
and other appearing Caution? of Safety, 
that can be: And ^tis certain, that 
whoever is carried to fee the Bank, 
fhall never fail to find the Appearance 
of a mighty real Trcafure, in Bars of 
Gold and Silver, Plate and infinite 
Bags of Metals, \Vhich aire fuppofed to 
be all Gold and Silver, and may be io 
for ought I know. But the Burgo- 
mafters only having the Infpe£tion of 
this Bank, and no Man ever taking 
any particular Account of what iilues 
in and out, from Age to Age, 'tis im- 
H 2 poflible 

Hosted by Google 

100 of their Government. Chap. IL 

polTible to make any Calculation, ox 
guefs what Proportion the real Trea- 
lure may hold to the Credit of it. 
Therefore the Security of the Bank lies 
not only in the Effefts that are in it, 
but in the Credit of the whole Town 
or State of Amjierdam^ whofe Stock 
and Revenue is equal to that of fome 
Kingdoms ^ and who are bound to 
make good all Monies that are 
brought into their Bank: The Tickets 
or Bills hereof make all the ufual 
great Payments, that are made between 
Man and Man in the Town •, and not 
only in moft other Places of the Uni- 
ted Trovinces^ but in many other Tra- 
ding-parts of the World. So as this 
Bank is properly a general Cadi, where 
every Man lodges his Mony, becaufe 
he cfteems it fafer, and caficr paid in 
and out, than if it v/ere in his Coffers 
at home : And the Bank is fo far 
from paying any Interefl: for what is 
there brought in, that Mony in the 
Bank is worth fomething more in 
common Payments, that what runs 
currant in Coin from Hand to Hand ^ 
no other Mony palling in the Bank, 
tut in the Species of Coin the befi: 
known, the moft afcertain'd, and the 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. 11. Of their Government. i o r 

mofl generally current in all parts of the 
Higher as well as the Lower Germany. 
The Revenues of Amfterdam arife 
out of the conftant Excife upon all 
forts of Commodities bought and fold 
within the Precinft : Or, out of the 
Rents of thofe Houfcs or Lands that 
belong in common to the City ; Or, 
out of certain Duties and Impofitions 
upon every Houfe, towards the Ufes of 
Charity, and the Repairs, or Adorn- 
inents, or FortificationS:> of the Place : 
Or elfe, out of extraordinary Levies 
confented to by the Senate, for fur- 
niihing their Part of the Publick 
Charge that is agreed to by their De- 
puties in the Provincial-States, for the 
ufe of the Province : Or by the De- 
puties of the States of Holland in the 
States-General, for Support oF^the 
Union. And all thefe Payments are 
made into one Common Stock of the 
Town, not, as many of ours are, into 
that of the Parifli, fo as Attempts 
may be eafier made at the Calculati- 
ons of their whole Revenue: And I 
have heard it affirmed, That what is 
paid of all kinds to Publick Ufes of 
the States- General, the Province, and 
the City in Amfierdamy amounts to 
H 3 above 

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ioz of their Go'vernment. Chap. 11^ 

above Sixteen hundred thoufand Pounds 
Sterling ^ Yean But I enter into no 
Computations, nor give tl^efe for any 
thing more, than what I have heard 
from Men who pretended to make 
fuch Enquiries, which, I confefs, I did 
nor. 'Tis certain, that, in no Town, 
Strength, Beauty, and Convenience are 
better provided for, nor with more un- 
limited Expence, than in this, by the 
Magnificence of their Publick Build- 
ings, as St^idthoufe and Arfenals •, the 
Number and Spacioufnefs, as well as 
Order and Revenues qf their many Ho- 
fpitals y the Commodioufnefs of their 
Canals, running through the chief 
Streets of Paflage-, the mighty Strength 
of their Baftions and Ramparts 5 and 
the Neatnefs, as well as Convenience, 
of their Streets, fo far as can be com- 
pafs*d in fo great a Confluence of 
induftrious People : All which could 
never be atchievcd without a Charge 
much exceeding what feems propor- 
tioned to the Revenue of one lingle 
Qovern. The Scnatc chufes the Deputies, 
^^^^^/^^^ which are fent from this City to the 
Hoiknr States of Holland^ the Sovereignty 
whereof is reprefented by Deputies of 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap- IL Of their Government, 105 

the Nobler and Towns, compofing 
Nineteen Voices : Of which the No- 
bles have only the firft, and the Cities 
Eighteen, according to the number of 
thofe which are called Stemms ^ the 
other Cities and Towns of the Pro- 
vince having no Voice in the St^it^s, 
Thefe Cities were originally but Six, 
"Dort:, Haerlem^ T)elf, Leyden^ Amfter- 
dam and Tergou, But were cncreafed, 
by Prince William of Najfau^ to the 
number of Eighteen, by the Addition 
of Rotterdam^ Qorcum^ Schedam^ Scho- 
noven^ Briely Alcmaer^ Horne^ Enchu- 
fen^ Edam^ Moninckdam^ Medenblicky 
and Termeren. This makes as- great 
an Inequality in the Government of 
the Province, by fuch a fmall City as 
Termeren having an equal Voice in 
the ProvincialrStatcs with Amfterdam^ 
(which pays perhaps half of all Charges 
of the Province, ) as fecms to be in 
the States- General, by fo fmall a Pro- 
vince as Qveryjpl having an equal 
Voice in the States -General with that 
of Hollandy which contributes more 
than half to the general Charge of the 
Union. But this was by fome Wri- 
ters of that Age interpreted to be 
done by the Princess Authority, to 
^ H 4 leffeE 

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104 ^/ ^^^^^"^'^oojernment. Chap. II. 

lefTen that of the Nobles, and babnce 
that of the greater Cities, by the Voi- 
ces of the Imaller, whofe Dependen- 
ces were eaiicr to be gained and fe- 

The Nobles, though they are few in 
this Province, yet are not reprefented 
by all their Number, but by Eight or 
Nine, who as Deputies from their Bo- 
dy have Seffion in the States-Provin- 
cial > and ^vhp, when one among them 
dyes, chufe another to fucceed him« 
Though they have all together but 
One Voice equal to the fmalleft Town j 
yet they are very confideral^le in the 
Government, by poflelTing many of 
the beft Charges both CivU and Mili- 
tary, by having the Direftipn of all 
the Ecclefiaflical Revenue that was 
ieis'd by the State upon the Change 
of Religion •, and by lending their De- 
puties to all the Councils both of the 
Generalty and the Province, and by 
the Nomination of One Counlcllor in 
the Two great Courts of Juftice. They 
give their Voice firft in the AfTembly 
of the States, and thereby a great 
Weight to the Bufincfs in Confultation, 
The Fenfioner of Holland is feated 
with thcm^ delivers their Voice fpt 
' , them^ 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap* II. of their Go'vernment. i<>5 

them, and alTifts at all their Deliberati- 
ons, before they come to the AiTembly. 
Heis^ properly, but Minifter or Servant 
of the Provmce, and fo his Place or 
Rank is behind all their Deputies ^ but 
has always great Credit, becaufe he is 
perpetual, or feldom difcharged ^ though 
of right he ought to be cholen or renew- 
ed every fifth Year. He has place in all 
the feveral AiTemblies of the Province^ 
and in the States propofes all Affairs, ga- 
thers the Opinions, and forms or digefts 
the Refolutions •, pretending likewife a 
Power, ngt to conclude any very impor- 
tant Affair by plurality of Voices, when 
he judges in his Confcience he ought 
not to dp it, and that it will be of ill 
Confequencc or Prejudice to the Pro- 
vince. He is likewife one of their con- 
flant Deputies in the States-General. 

The Deputies of the Cities are drawn 
out of the Magiftratcs and Senate of 
each To\vn: Their Number i^ uncer- 
tain and Arbitrary, according to the 
Cuftoms or Pleafure of the Cities that 
fend theiji, becaufe they have all toge- 
ther but one Voice, and are all main- 
tained at their Cities charge : But com- 
monly one of the Burgomafters, and 
the Eenfioner are of the Number. 


Hosted by Google 

10 6* of their Government. Chap II, 

The States of Holland have their 
Seflion in the Court at the Hague^ and 
aflcmble ordinarily four times a if ear, 
in February 9 June^ September^ and Na- 
vember. In the former Seilions, they 
provide for the filhng up of all vacant 
Charges, and for renewing the Farms 
of all the fever^l Taxes, and for con- 
fulting about any matters that concern 
cither the general Good of the Pro- 
vince, or any particular Differences 
arifing between the Towns. But in 
November^ they meet purpofely to re- 
folve upon the Continuance of the 
Cliarge which falls to the fhare of their 
Province the following Year, according 
to what may have been agreed upon 
by the Deputies of the States-General, 
as neccffary for the Support of the State 
or Union. 

For extraordinary Occafions, they 
are convoked by a Council called the 
Gecommitteerde Raeden^ or the Com- 
miilioned Counfellors, who are pro- 
perly a Council of State, of the Pro- 
vince, compofed of feveral Deputies 5 
One from the Nobles % One from 
each of the chief Towns > And but 
One from Three of the fmallcr Towns, 
each of tbt Three chufing' him by 


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chap. IL Of their Government. 107 

turns. And this Council fits conftant-^ 
ly at the Hague^ and both propofes 
to the ProvinciaUStates, at their ex- 
traordinary AfTemblics, the matters of 
DeUberation^ and executes their Refo- 

In thefe AflembUes, though aU arc 
equal in Voices, and any one hinders 
a Relult > yet it feldom happens, but 
that united by one common Bond of 
Intereft, and having all one common 
End of Publick Good, they come 
;ifter full Debates to eafie Refolutionsj 
yielding to the Power of Reafon, where 
it IS clear and ftrong, and fupprefling 
all private Paffions or Interefts, fo as 
the fmaller part feldom contefts. hard 
or long? what the greater agrees of. 
When the Deputies of the States a- 
gree in Opinion, they fend fome of 
their number to their rcfpe£tive Towns, 
propoling the Affair and the Reafons 
alledged, and defiring Orders from 
them to conclude > which feldom fails, 
if the Neccffity or Utility be evi- 
dent : If it be more intricate, or fuf- 
fers Delay, the States adjourn for 
fuch a time, as admits the Return of 
all the Deputies to their Towns j 
where their loflyence and Intereft^ and 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

I o 8 'of their Go^ernnunt. Chap, II, 

the ImpreHions of the Debates in their 
Provincial AfTembhes, make the Con- 
fent of the Cities eafier gain'd, 

Befides the States and Council men- 
tioned, the Province has likewife a 
Chamber of Accounts, who manage 
the general Revenues of the Province : 
And, befides this Truft, they have the 
abfolute Difpofition of the ancient De- 
mefn of Holland^ without giving any 
Account to the States of the Province. 
Only at times, either upon ufual Inter- 
vals, or upon a Necellity of Mony, 
the States call upon them for a Sub- 
lidy of Two or Three Hundred Thou- 
fand Crowns, or more, as they are 
preft, or conceive the Chamber to be 
grown rich, beyond what is proportio- 
ned to the general Defign of encreafing 
the Eafe and Fortunes of thofe Perfons 
who compofe it. The States of Hol- 
land difpofe of thefe Charges to Men 
grown aged in their Service, and who 
have palsM through moft of the Em- 
ployments of State, with the Efteem of 
Prudence and Integrity 5 and fuch Per- 
ibns find here an honourable and profi- 
table Retreat. 

The Provinces of Holland and Zea- 
land^ as they ufed formerly to have 


Hosted by Google 

Chap-IL of their Government. 105? 

one Governor in the Time of the 
Houfes of Burgtindy and Aujiriai fo 
rhey have long had one common Ju< 
d^cature^ which is exercifed by Two 
Courts of Juftice, each of them com- 
mon to both the Provinces. The firfl 
is compofed of Twelve CounfellorSj- 
Nine of Holland, and Three of Zea- 
land^ of whom the Governor of the 
Provinces is the Head 5 by the old 
Conftitution ufed to prefide when- 
ever he pleafed, and to name all the 
Counfellors except One, who was cho- 
ien by the Nobles. This Court judges 
without Appeal in all Criminal Caules> 
but in Civil there lies Appeal to the 
other Court, which is called the High 
Council, from which there is no Ap- 
peal, but only by Petition to th^ States 
of the Province for a Revifion : When 
thefe judge there is Reafon for it, they 
grant Letters-patents to that purpofe, 
naming fome Syndionies out of the 
Towns, who being added to the Coun- 
fellors of the two former Courts rc- 
vife and judge the Caufe in the laft Re- 
fort. And this Courfe feems to have 
been inftituted by way of Supply or 
Imitation of the Chamber of Mechljn^ 
to which, before the Revolt of the 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

110 of their Go'vernment. Cli^p. It, 

Provinces, there lay an Appeal, by way 
of Revifion, from all or moft of the 
Provincial Courts of Juftice, as there 
Itill doth in the i5/>^;?^y/?^ Provinces of the 
Govern^ The Union is made up of the Seven 
^'^^^p^' Sovereign Provinces before iiamed, 
Provinces, who chufe their refpedive Deputies, 
and fend them to the Haguey for the 
compofing of Three feveral Colleges, 
call'd The States-General, The Coun- 
cil of State^ and the Chamber of Ac- 
counts. The Sovereign Power of this 
United-State lies cfteftively in the 
AiTembly of the States-General, which 
ufed at iirfl: to be convoked upon ex- 
traordinary Occaiions, by the Council 
of State 'y but that feldom, in regard 
they ufualiy confifted of above Eight 
JHundred Perfons, whofe meeting toge- 
ther in one place, from fo many feveral 
parts, gave too great a (hake to the 
whole Body of the Union ^ made the 
Debates long, and fometimcs confu- 
fed ; the Refolutions flow, and, upon 
fudden Occafions, out of time. In the 
Abfence of the States-General, the 
Council of State reprefented their Au^ 
thority, and executed their Refoluti- 
ons, and judged of the neceflity of a 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. 11. of their Government. 

new Convocation y 'rill after the Earl of 
Leicejiefs Departure from the Govern- 
ment, the Provincial-States defired of 
the General, That they might, by their 
conftant refpeftivc Deputies, continue 
their Afllmblies under the Name of 
States-General^ which were never after 
afTembled but at Bergen ap Zoom^ for 
ratifying with more folcmn Form and 
Authority, the Truce concluded with 
Duke Albert and Spain, 

This Defire of the Provinces was 
grounded upon the Pretences, That 
the Council of State convoked them 
but fcldom, and at Will-, and that be- 
ing to execute all in their Abfence, 
they thereby arrogated to themfelves 
too great an Authority in the State. But 
a more fecret Reafon had greater weight 
ia this Affair, which was, That the 
Englijh Ambaflador had, by agreement 
with Queen Elizabeth'^ a conftant place 
in their Council of State ^ and upon 
the Diftates arifing between the Pro- 
vinces and the Earl o{ Leicefier^ with 
fome Jealoufies of the Queen's Difpo- 
fition to make a Peace with Spain^ 
they had no mind that her Ambafla- 
dor (hould be prefent any longer ill 
the firft Digeftion of their Affairs, 


1 1 I 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

T^ I % 

of their Government. Chap; tL 

which was then ufually made in the 
Council of State. And hereupon they 
firft: fram'd the ordinary Council, call'd 
ihQ States-General^ which has ever fince 
pafs'd by that Name, and fits conftant- 
ly in the Court at the Hague^ reprc- 
fents the Sovereignty of the Union,, 
gives Audience and Difpatches to all. 
Foreign Minifters y but yet is indeed 
only a Reprefentative of the States-Ge- 
neral, the AlTemblies whereof are whol- 
ly difufed. 

The Council of State, the Admiral- 
ty, and the Treafury, are all fubordi- 
nate to this Council : All which are 
continu'd in as near a Refemblance, as 
could be, to the feveral Councils ufed 
in the time when the Provinces were 
fubjeft to their feveral Principalities > 
or united under One in the Houfes of 
Burgundy and Auftria : Only the feve- 
ral Deputies (^compofing one Voice} 
now fucceeding the fingle Perfons em- 
ployed under the former Governments : 
And the Hague^ which was. the ancient 
Seat of the Counts of Holland^ flill 
continues to be fo of all thefe Coun- 
cils > where the Palace of the former 
Sovcraigns, lodges the Prince of Orange 
as Governor, and receives thefe feve-, 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. IL- Of their Goijemment. 1 1 5 

ral Councils as attending ftill upon the 
Sovereignty, reprefented by the States- 

The Members of all thefe Councils 
ate placed and changed by the feve- 
ral Provinces, according to their diffe- 
rent or agreeing Cuitoms. To the 
States- General every one fends their 
Deputies, in what number they pleafc; 
fome TWO5 fome Ten or Twelve > which 
makes no Difference, becaufe all Mat- 
ters ate carry*d, not by the Votes of 
Perfons, but of Provinces j and all the 
Deputies from one Province, how few 
or many foever, have one fingle Vote. 
The Provinces differ likewiie in the 
time fixed for their Deputation 5 fome 
fending for a Year, fome for more, and 
others for Life. The Provinces of Hoi- 
land^ fend to the States- General one of 
their Nobles, who is perpetual j Two 
Deputies chofen out of their Eight 
chief Towns > and One out of Norths 
Holland i and with thefe. Two of their 
Provincial Council of State, and their 

Neither Stadtholder or Governor, 

or any Perfon in Military Charge, has 

Seffion in the States-General. Every 

Province prefides their Week in turns^ 

L and 

Hosted by Google 


of their G on) ernment. Cliap. 11; 

and by the moft qualified Perfon of 
the .Deputies of that Province : He 
fits in a Chair with Arms, at the mid- 
dle of a long> Table^ capable of hold- 
ing about Thirty Perfons ^ for about 
that Numbtr this Council is ufually 
compofed of Th !: Greffier^ who is in 
nature of a Secretary, fits at the lower 
end of the Table : When a Foreign 
Minifter has Audience, he is feated at 
the middle of this Table, over-againft 
the Prefident, who propofes all Mat- 
ters in this AfTembly; makes the Gref^ 
fief read all Papers 3 puts the Que- 
ftion y calls the Voices of the Pro-^ 
vinces ^ and forms the Conclufion, 
Or, if he refufes to conclude accord-^ 
ing to the Plurality, he is obliged to 
relign his Place to the Prefident of the 
enfuing Week, who concludes for 

This is the Courfe in all Affairs be- 
fore them, except in Cafes of Peace 
and War, of Foreign Alliances, of 
Raifing or Coining of Monies, or the 
Privileges of each Province or Mem- 
ber of the Union. In all which. All 
the Provinces mull: concur. Plurality 
being not at all weighed or obfervea; 
This Council is not Sovereign, but 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. IL of their Go^oemment, 

only reprcfcnts the Sovereignty > and 
therefore, though Ambafladors are both 
received and knt in their Name ^ yet 
neither are their own chofen, nor Fo- 
reign Minifters anfwer'd, nor any of 
thofe mentioned Affairs refolv'd^ with- 
out confulting firll the States of each 
Province by their refpeftive Deputies, 
and receiving Orders from them > and 
in other important Matters, though de- 
cided by Plurahty, they frequently con- 
fult with the Council of State. 

Nor has this N4ethod or Conftituti- 
on ever been broken fince their State 
began, excepting only in on^ Affair, 
which was in January 1(568, fwhen His 
Majefty fent me over to propofe a 
League of Mutual Defence with this 
State, and another for the Preferva- 
tion of Flanders from the Invaiion of 
France-^ which had already conquered 
a great part of the Spanifh Provinces, 
and left the reft ^t the Mercy of the 
next Campania, Upon this Occafion I 
had the Fortune to prevail with the 
States-General, to conclude Three Trea- 
ties, and upon them draw up and fign 
the feveral Inflruments^ in the fpace 
of Five Days ^ without pafling the 
cdential Forms of their Government 
I 3 by 


Hosted by Google 

i\6 of their Go^enment. Ghap. IL 

by any recourfc to the Provinces, 
\vhich mud likewife have had it to the 
feveral Cities : There, I knew, thofe 
Foreign Minifters, whofe Duty and In- 
tereft it was to oppofe this Affair, ex- 
pefted to meet, and to elude it, which 
could not have failed^ in cafe it had 
run that Circle, fmce engaging the 
Voice of one City muft have broken 
it. ^Tis true, that in conckiding thefe 
Alliances without Commiffion from 
their Principals, the Deputies of the 
States- General ventured their Heads, if 
they had been difowned by their Pro- 
vinces > but being all unanimous, and 
led by the clear evidence of fo direft, 
and io important an Intereft, (which 
muft have been loft by the ufual De- 
lays,) they all agreed to run the ha^ 
zard ^ and were io far from being dif- 
owned, that they were applauded by 
all the Members of every Province : 
Having thereby changed the whole 
Face of Affairs in Chriftendom, and laid 
the Foundation of the Tripple- Alliance, 
and the Peace of -^/at, (^which were 
concluded about Four Months after.} 
So great has the force of Reafon and 
Intereft ever proved in this State, not 
only to the uniting of all Voices in 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. IL of their Go^vevnment. 117 

their AfTemblies, but to the abfolving 
of the greateft Breach of their Origi- 
nal Gonftitutions 5 even in a State, 
whofe Safety and Greatnefs has been 
chiefly founded upon the fevere and 
exaft Obfervance of Order and Me- 
thod, in all their Counfels and Executi- 
ons. Nor have they ever us'd, at any 
other time, any greater means to agree 
and unite the feveral Members of their 
Union, in the Refolutions neceflary, 
upon the moft preiling Occalions, than 
for the agreeing-Provincestoname fome 
of their ableft Ferfons to go and confer 
with the diflcnting, and reprefent thofe 
Reafons and Interefts, by which they 
have been induced to their Opini- 

The Council of State is compos-d 
of Deputies from the feveral Provin- 
ces, but after another manner than the 
States-General, the number being fix*d. 
Gelderland fends Two, Holland Three, 
Zealand and Utrecht Two apiece, 
Friezland^ Overyjfel and Groninghen^ 
each of them One, making in all 
Twelve. They Vote not by Provin- 
ces, but by Perfonal Voices -, and eve- 
ry Deputy prefides by Turns. In this 
Council the Governor of the Pro- 
I 5 vinces 

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I- 1 8 of their Gonjcrnment. Chap. 11. 

vinces has Seflloii) andadecifiveVoice 5 
and the Trcafurer-Gencral, Seflion, but 
a Voice only deliberative ^ yet he has 
much Credit here, being for Life •, and 
fo is the Perfon deputed to this Coun- 
cil from the Nobles of Holland^ and 
the Deputies of the Province of Zea- 
land. The reft are but forTwo, Threcj 
or Four Years. 

The Council of State executes the 
Refolution of the States-General •, con- 
fults and propofcs to them the moft 
expedient ways of railing Troops, and 
levying Monies, as well as the Propor- 
tions of both, which they conceive ne- 
cellary in all Conjunftures and Revolu- 
tions of the State : Superintends the 
Milice, the Fortifications, the Contri« 
butions out of Enemies Country, the 
Forms and Difpofal of all Pafsports, 
and the Affairs, Revenues, and Govern-. 
ment of all Places conquered fince the 
Union ^ which, being gain'd by the 
common Arms of this State, depend 
upon the States- General, and not upon 
any particular Province. 

Towards the End of every Year, this 
Council forrns a State of the Expencc 
they conceive will be neceflary for the 
Year enfuing) prefcn ts it to the States- 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. II. Of their Gonjernfnent. 1 1 ^ 

General) defiring them to demand {o 
much of the States-Provincial, to be 
raifed according to the ufual Proporti- 
ons^ which are of looooo G''* 

G'' St. D; 

Gelderland 3612 — ; — of 00 

Holland • -58309— — 01 :'io 

Zealand 9183 — —14,- -02 

Utrecht 5830 ij \\ 

Friezland 1 1 661 Lf 10 

Overyffel 35-71 -08 :.q4 

Groningiie )-(>3o ij 11 

This Petition^ as 'tis calPd, is made 
to the States-General, in the Name of 
the Gover^ior and Council, of State, 
which is but a Continuance of the 
Forms ufed in the time of their Sove- 
raigns, and ftill by the Governors and 
Council of State in the Spantjh Nether- 
lands : Petition fignifying barely 
asking or demanding, tho' implying 
the Thing demanded to be wholly in 
the Right and Power of them that 
give. It was ufed by the firft Counts, 
only upon extraordinary Occafions, and 
Neceflities ; but in the time of the 
Houfes oi Burgundy and Auftria^ grew 
to be a thing of Courfe, and Annual, 
I 4 as 

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110 of their Government. Chap. IL 

as it is ftill in the Spanip Provinces. 
The Council of State difpofes of 
all Sums of Mony deflin'd for all ex- 
traordinary Affairs, and expedites the 
Orders for the whole Expence of the 
State, upon the Refolutions firft taken, 
in the main, by the States-General. 
The Orders muft be Signed by Three 
Deputies of feveral Provinces, as well 
as by the Treafurer-General, and then 
Regiftred in the Chamber of Accounts, 
before the Receiver- General pays them, 
which is then done without any diffi- 
culty, charge, or delay. 

Every Province raifes what Monies 
it pleafes, and by what ways or means ^ 
fends its G^ota^, or fliare, of the general 
Charge, to the Receiver- General, and 
converts the refb to the prefent ufe, or 
referves it for the future Occalions> of 
. the Province. 

The Chamber of Accounts was erect- 
ed about Sixty Years ago, for the Eafe 
of the Council of State, to examine 
and ftate all Accounts of all the feveral 
Receivers, to Control and Regifter the 
Orders of the Council of State, which 
difpofes of the Finances : And this 
Chamber is composed of Two Deputies 
from each Province, who are changed 
every Three Yqgrj. Be- 

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Cliap- II. of their Gowernment. 

Befides thefe Colleges, is the Coun. 
cil of the Admiralty J who, when the 
States-General, by Advice of the Coun- 
cil of State, have dcftin'd a Fleet of 
fuch a Number and Force to be ict out, 
have the abfolute Difpofition of the 
Marine Affairs, as well in the Choice 
and Equipage of all the fevcral Ships, 
as in ifluingche Monies allotted for that 

This College is fubdivided into Five, 
of which Three are in Holland^ viz. 
One in Amfterdanh another at Rotter-^ 
dam^ and the Third at Horn : The 
Fourth is at Mlddlebotirgh in Zealand^ 
and the Fifth at Harlingtien in Friez- 
land. Each of thefe is compofed of 
Seven Deputies, Four of that Pro- 
vince where the College refides^ and 
Three named by the other Provinces. 
The Admiral, or, in his Abfence, the 
Vice-Admiral, has Seflion in all thefe 
Colleges, and prelides when he is pre- 
fent. They take Cognizance of all 
Crimes committed at Sea •, judge all 
Pirats that are taken, and all Frauds 
or Negligences in the Payment or Col- 
leftions of the Cuftoms v which are 
particularly aff€<9ted to the Admiralty, 



Hosted by VjOOQIC 


of their Government. Chap II, 

and appliable to no other Ufe. This 
Fond being not fufficient in times of 
War, is lupplied by the States with 
whatever more is ncceflary from other 
Fonds s but in time of Peace, being lit- 
tie exhaufted by other conftant Charge, 
befides that of Convoys to their feveral 
Fkets of Merchants in all Parts, the 
Remainder of this Revenue is applied 
to the Building of great Ships of 
War, and furnifhing the feveral Arfe- 
nals and Stores with all forts of Pro- 
vifion, neceiTary for the Building and 
Rigging of more Ships than can be 
needed by the Courfe of a long 
War. ^ ^ 

So loon as the Number and Force of 
the Fleets, defign'd for any Expedition, 
is agreed by the States-General, and 
given out by the Council of State to 
the Admiralty ^ each particular Col- 
lege furniflies their own Proportion, 
which is known as well as that of the 
Icveral Provinces, in all Monies that 
arc to be raifed. In all which, t^e 
Adiriral has no other Share or Advan- 
tage, befides his bare Salary, and his 
proportion in Prizes that are taken. 
The Captains and Superior OiBcers of 
each Squadron are chofen by the fe- 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

.Chap. II. Of their Government. j z 5 

veral Colleges -, the number of Men 
appointed for every Ship: After which, 
each Captain ufes his befl Diligence 
and Credit to fill his Number with the 
beft Men he can get, and takes the 
whole care and charge of ViftualHng 
his own Ship for the Time intended 
for that Expedition, and fignify'dtohim 
by the Admiralty ^ and this at a cer- 
tain Rate of fo much a Man. And by 
the good or ill Difcharge of his Trull, 
as well as that of providing Chirur- 
geons Medicines:, and ail things necef- 
lary for the Health of the Men, each 
Captain grows into good or ill credit 
with the Seamen, and, by their Report, 
with the Admiralties : Upon whofe 
Opinion and Efteem the Fortune of all 
Sea-Officers depends : So as, in all 
their Expeditions, there appears rather 
an Emulation among the particular 
Captains who (hall treat his Seamen 
beft in thefc Points, and employ the 
Monies alloted for their Vidualling, 
to the beft Advantage, than any little 
Kndvifti Practices, of tilhng their own 
Purfes by keeping their Men's Bellies 
empty, or forcing them to corrupted 
unwholfome Diet : Upon which, and 
upon Cleanlinefs in their Ships, the 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

I Z4 0/ ^^^^^ Government. Chap. IL 

Health of many People crowded up 
into fo little Rooms, feem chiefly to 

The Salaries of all the Great Officers 
of this State, are very fmall : I have 
already mentioned that of a Burgoma- 
fter's of Amfterdam to be about Fifty 
Pounds fterling a Year : That of their 
Vice- Admiral (^for fince the laft Prince 
oi Orange's Death, to the Year 1670, 
there had been no Admiral) is Five 
Hundred, and that of the Tenjioner of 
Holland Two Hundred. 

The Greatnefs of this State feems 
much to confifl: in thefe Orders, how 
confufed foever, and of different Pie- 
ces, they may feem : But more in two 
main EfFefts of them, which are, The 
good choice of the Officers of chief 
Truft in the Cities, Provinces, and 
State : And the great Simplicity and 
Modefty in the common Port or Living 
of their chiefeft Minifters •, without 
which, the Abfolutenefs of the Senates 
in each Town, and the Immenfity of 
Taxes throughout the whole State, 
would never be endured by the People 
with any patience 3 being both of them 
greater than in many of thofe Govern- 
ments^ w^hich are efteem'd inpfl: Arbi- 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. 11. of their Government. 12.5 

trary among their Neighbours. But ia 
the AfTemblies and Debates of their 
Senates, every Man's Abilities are dif- 
covered, as their Difpofitions are, in 
the Condu6t of their Lives and Dome- 
ftick, among their fellow-Citizens. The 
Obfervation of thefe either raifes, or 
fuppreflcs^ the Credit of particular Men, 
both among the People, and the Se- 
nates of their Towns 5 who, to main- 
tain their Authority with lefs popular 
Envy or Difcontent, give much to the 
general Opinion of the People in the 
choice of their Magiiftrates : By this 
means it comes to pafs, that, though 
perhaps the Nation generally be not 
wife, yet the Government is, Becaufe 
it is compofed of the wifeft of the Na- 
tion 'y which may give it an Advantage 
over many others, where Ability is of 
more common Growth, but of lefs Ufe 
to the Publickj if it happens that nei- 
ther Wifdom nor Honefty are the Qua- 
lities, which bring Men to the Manage- 
ment of State- Affairs, as they ufually 
do in this Commonwealth. 

Befides, though thefe People, who 
are naturally Cold and Heavy, may 
not be ingenious enough to furnifli a 
pleafant or agreeable Converfation, yet 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

I 2, 6 of their Government. Chap. IL 

they want not plain down-right Senfe 
to underiland and do their Bufinefs 
both piiblick and private^ which is a 
Talent very different from the other > 
and I know not, whether they often 
meet : For the Fifft proceeds from 
jHeat of the Brain, which makes the 
Spirits more airy and volatile, and 
thereby the motions of Thought lighter 
and quicker, and the Range of Imagi- 
nation rnuch greater than in cold Heads,: 
where the Spnits are more earthy and 
dull : Thought moves flower and hea- 
vier, but thereby the Impreflions of it 
are deeper, and iaft longer : One Ima- 
gination being not fo frequently, nor 
fo eafily, effaced by another, as where 
new ones are continually arifing. This 
makes duller Men more conftant and 
lieady, and quicker Men more incon- 
flant and uncertain 5 whereas the great- 
eft Abihty in Bufinefs feems to be the 
fteady purfuit of fomc one thing, /till 
there is an End of it, with perpetual 
Apphcation and Endeavour not to be 
diverted by every Reprefentation of 
new Hopes or Fears of Difficulty or 
Danger, or of fome better Defign. The 
firft of thefc Talents cuts like a Razor> 
the other hke a Hztchct : One has 


Hosted by VjOOQ IC 

Cliap. 11. of their Government. i ^y 

Thinnefs of Edge^and Finenefs of Metal 
and i emper, but is eafily turn'd by any 
Subftancethat is hard, and refifts. T'o- 
ther has Tough nefs and Weigh t, which 
makes it cut through, or go deep^ 
where-ever it falls y and therefore one is 
for Adornment, and t' other for Ufe. 

It may be faid further, that the Heat 
of the Heart commonly goes along 
with that of the Brain > fo that Paffi- 
ons are warmer, where Imaginations 
are quicker : And there are few Men^^un- 
lefs in cafe of fome evident Natural De- 
fed) but have Senfe enough to diftin- 
guifli in grofs between Right and Wrong, 
between Good and Bad, when repre- 
fented to them ; and confequently have 
Judgment enough to do their Bufinefs> 
if it be lefc to it felf, and not fwayed 
nor corrupted by fome Humor or Paf- 
fion, by Anger or Pride, by Love ot 
by Scorn, Ambition or Avarice, De- 
light or Revenge j fo that theColdnefs 
of Paffions fecms to be the natural 
ground of Ability and Honefty among 
Men, as the Government or Moderati- 
on of them the great End of Philo- 
fophical and Moral Inftruftions. Thefe 
Speculations may perhaps a little lefTen 
the common Wonder, How wc (hould 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

1 2.8 of their Government. Chap. IL 

meet with in one Nation fo little (hew 
of Parts, and of Wit, and fo great E- 
vidence of Wifdom and Prudence, as 
has appeared in the Conduft and Suc- 
cefles of this State, for near an Hun- 
dred Years : which needs no other Te- 
ftimony, than the mighty Growth and 
Power it arrived to, from fo weak and 
contemptible S(tcds and Beginnings. 

The other Circumftance, I mention- 
ed as an Occafion of their Greatnefs, 
was, the SimpHcity and Modefty of their 
Magiftrates in their way of Living j 
which is fo general, that I never knew 
One among them exceed the common 
frugal popular Air; and fo great, that 
of the Two chief Officers in my Time, 
Vice- Admiral T)e Ruitevy and the Pcn- 
{\ox\ttT>eJViti (One, generally efteem- 
ed by Foreign Nations, as great . a 
Seaman ; and the other, as great a 
States-mail, as any of their Age,) I 
never fatv the firft in Cloaths better 
than the commoneft Sea-Captain, nor 
with above one Man following him, 
nor in a Coach : And in his own 
Houfe, neither was the SizCy Building, 
Furniture, or Entertainment, at all ex- 
ceeding the Ufe of every common 
Merchant and Tradefman in his Town^ 


Hosted by LjOOQIC 

Gliap. II- Of their Go^vemment. i z^ 

For the Penfioner T)e IVit^ who had 
the great Influence in the Govern- 
ment, the whole Train and Expence of 
his Domcftick went very equal with 
other common Deputies or Minifters 
of the State ^ His Habit grave, and 
plain, and popular • His Table, what 
only ferv'd turn for his Family, or a 
Friend 3 His Train (^befides Commif- 
farie? and Clerks kept for him in an 
Office adjoining to his Houfe^ at the 
publick Charge,} was only one Man^ 
who performed all the Menial Service 
of his Houfe at home> and upon his 
Vifits of Ceremony, putting on a plain 
Livery-Cloak, attended his Coach a- 
broad: For, upon other occafions, He 
was feen ufually in the Streets on foot 
and alone, Uke the commoneft Burgher 
of the Town. Nor was this manner of 
Life afFcfted, or us'd only by thefe par- 
ticular Men, but was the general fafhi- 
ori and mode among all theMagiftrates 
of the State : For I fpeak not of the ^ 
Military Officers, wh6 are reckoned 
their Servants, and live in a different 
Garb, though generally modeller than 
in other Countries. 

.Thus this ftomachful People, who 

could not endure the leaft Exercife of 

K Ar- 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

2 Oj their Government. Chap. IL 

Arbitrary Power or Impofitions, or the 
fight of any Foreign Troops undei* 
the Spanijh Government ^ Have been 
fince inured to all of them, in the 
higheft Degree, under their own popu- 
lar Magiftrates ; Bridled with hard 
Laws y Terrified with fevere Executi- 
ons > Environed with Foreign Forces v 
And oppreft with the moft cruel Hard- 
fliip and Variety of Taxes, that was 
ever known under any Government. 
But all this, whilft the way to Office 
and Authority lies through thofe Qua- 
lities, which acquire the general Efteem 
of the People > Whilft no Man is ex- 
empted from the Danger and Current 
of Laws> Whilft Soldiers are confined 
to Frontier- Garrifons, (^the Guard of 
Inland, or Trading Towns being left 
to the Burghers themfelves >) And whilft 
no great Riches are feen to enter by 
publick Payments into private Purfes, 
either to raife Families, or to feed the 
prodigal Expences of vain, extravagant, 
and luxurious Men j But all pubhck 
Monies arc applied to the Safety, Great- 
ntk^ or Honour of the State, and the 
Magiftrates themfelves bear an equal 
Share in all the Burthens they impofe. 



Hosted by VjOOQIC 

Chap. IL Of their Go'vernment. 131 

The Authoriry of the Princes of O- TheAmho^ 
range, though intermitted upon the uarp^4'{/t/ 
timely Death of the laftj and Infancy orange. 
of this prefent Prince ^ Ytty as it muft 
be ever acknowledg'd to have had a 
moft eflential part in the firft Frame of 
this Government^ and in all the For- 
tunes thereof, during the whole Growth 
and Progrefs of the State : So, has it 
ever preferv'd a very ftrong Root, not 
only in Six of the Provinces, but even 
in the general and popular AfFedions 
of the Province of Holland it klf, 
whofe States have, for thefe laft Twen- 
ty Years, fo much endeavoured to fup- 
prcfs, or exclude^ it. 

This began in the Perfon of Prince 
Wtlliafn of NaJfaWy at the very Birth 
of the State 3 and not fo much by 
thq Quality of being Governor of 
Holland and Zealand in Charles the 
Fifth's^ and Thilip the Second's time-, 
as by the efteem of fo great Wifdom, 
Goodnefs and Courage, as excell'd in 
that Prince, and feems to have been 
from him derived to his whole Race, 
being, indeed, the Qualities that natu- 
rally acquire Efteem and Authority 
among the People, in all Governments. 
K 2 Nor 

Hosted by Google 

i^t of their Gowemment^ Cliap^IL 

Nor has this Nation in particular, 
llnce the Time perhaps of Civilis^ e-» 
ver been without fome Head, under 
fome Title or other •, but always an 
Head fubordinate to their Laws andCu- 
lloms, and to the Sovereign Power of 
the State. 

In the firft Conftitution of this Go- 
vernment, after the Revolt from Spairiy 
All the Power and Rights of Prince 
1 Villi am of Orange^ as Governor of 
the Provinces, feem to have been care- 
fully ' referv'd. But thofe which re- 
mained inherent in the Soveraign, were 
devolved upon the AfTembly of the 
States-General, fo as in them remained 
the Power of making Peace and War, 
and all Foreign Alliances, and of rai- 
fmg and coining of Monies. In the 
Prince, the Command of all Land and 
Sea-Forces, as Captain-General and 
Adnliral, and thereby the Difpofition 
of all Military Commands; The Power 
of pardoning the Penalty of Crimes ^ 
The chufing of Magiftrates upon the 
Nomination of the Towns ^ For they 
prefented Three to the Prince, who 
elefted One out of that number. Ori- 
ginally the States- General were con-^ 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

Ciicip. II. of their Government. 1 3 5 

voked by the Council of State, where 
the Prince had the greateft Influence : 
Nor, fmce that change, have the States 
ufed to refolve any important Matter 
without his Advice. Befides all this., 
as the States-General reprefrnted the 
Sovereignty, fo did the Prince of 
Orange the Dignity, of this State, by 
publick Guards, and the Attendance 
of all Military Officers -, By the Appli- 
cation of all Foreign Minilters, and all 
Pretenders at home^ By the Splendor ^ 
of his Court, and Magnificence of hi$ 
Expence, fupported not only by the 
Penfions and Rights of his fevcral 
Charges and Cpmrnands, but by a 
mighty Patrimonial Revenue in Lands 
and Sovereign Principalities, and Lord- 
iliips, as well in France^ Germany^ and 
Burgundy^ as m the feveral parts of the 
Seventeen Provinces ^ fo as Prince 
Henry was ufed to anfwer fome, that 
would have flattered him into the De^ 
Jfigns of a more Arbitrary Power, That 
lie had as much as any wife Prince 
would defire in that State > iince he 
wanted none indeed, befides that of Pu- 
mfliing Men, and raifingMony > where^ 
as he had rather the Envy of the firft 
K 3 fliould 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

15 4 of their Gon)emment. Chap. IL 

fliould lye upon the Forms of the Go- 
vernment > and he knew the other 
could never be fupported without tht 
Confent of the People, to that degree 
which was neceflary for the Defence of 
fo fmall a State ^ againft fo mighty 
Princes as their Neighbours. 

Upon thefe Foundations was this 
State firft eftabhfti'd, and by thefe Or- 
ders maintained, 'till the Death of the 
laft Prince oi Orange: When, by the 

freat Influence of the Province of 
loUand amongft the reft, the Autho- 
rity of the Princes came to be (har'd 
among the feveral Magiftracies of the 
State j Thofe of the Cities aftum^d 
the laft Nomination of their feveral 
Magiftratess The States-Provincial, the 
Difpofal of all MiUtary Commands in 
thofe Troops, which their Share was to 
pay > and the States- General, theCom- 
mand of the Armies, by Officers of 
their own Appointment, fubftitutedand 
changed at their Will. No Ppwer re- 
mained to pardon what was once con- 
demned by Rigor of Law 5, nor any 
Perfon to reprefent the Port and Dig- 
nity of a Sovereign State: Both which 
could not fail of being fcnfibly mifs'd 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

Cliap. 11. Of their Go^emmentr 13? 

by the People -, fmce no Man in parti- 
cular can be fecure of offending, or 
wQuld therefore abfolutely defpair of 
Impunity himfclf, though he would 
have others do fo^ and Men are ge- 
nerally pleafed with the Pomp and 
Splendor of a Government, not only 
as it is an Amufement for idle People^ 
but as it is a Mark of the Greatnefs, 
Honour and Riches, of their Coun- 

However, thefe Defeats were for 
near Twenty Years fupply'd in fome 
mcafure, and this Frame fupported by 
the great Authority and Riches of the 
Province of Holland^ which drew a fort 
of Dependance from the other Six > and 
by the great Sufficiency, Integrity, and 
Conftancy of their Chief Minifter, and 
by the Effe£t of both in the profperous 
Succeffes of their Affairs : Yet having 
been a Conftitution ftrain^d againft the 
current Vein and Humour of the Peo- 
ple j It was always evident, that upon 
the Growth of this young Prince, the 
great Virtues and Qualities he derived 
from the Mixture of fuch Royal and 
fuch Princely Blood, could not fail, in 
time, of raiftng his Authority to equal, 
K 4 at 

Hosted by Google 

J 5 (J of their Goa^ernment. Chap. II. 

at leaft, if not to furpafs that of his 
Glorious Anceftors. 

Becaufe the Curious may defire to 
know fomething of the orher Provinces, 
as well as Holland^ at leaft, in general, and 
where they dijfl^er^ It may be obferv'd. 
That the Conftitutions of Gelderlandy 
Zealand^ and Utrecht :, agree much with 
thofe of Hollands the States in each 
Province being composed of Deputies 
from the Nobles and the Cities > But 
with thefe fmall Differences > In Gelder- 
land^ all the Nobles, that have certain 
Fees, or Lordflhips, in the Province, have 
Sellion, they compofe one half of the 
States, and the Deputies of the Town^ 
the prhcr-, and though fome certain 
Perfpns among them are deputed tp 
the States-General 5 yet any of the 
Nobles of Gelder may have place 
there, if he will attend at his own 

InZealand^ the Nobility having been 
cxtinguifh'd in the Spanijh. Wars > And 
the Prince of Orange pofTeffing the Mar- 
quifats of Flufhtng and Terveer^ His 
Highnefs alone makes that part of the 
States ix\ the Province, by the Quali- 
fy and Title of Firft, or Sole, Noble of 


Hosted by Google 

chap. II. of their Government. 157 

Zealand i And thereby has, by his De^ 
puty, the firft Place, and Voice, in the 
States of the Province, the Council of 
State, and Chamber of Accounts: As 
Soveraign of Flujhing and Terveer^ he 
likewife creates the Magiftrates, and 
cpnfequently difpofes the Voices, not 
only of the Nobles, but alfo of Two 
Towns, whereas there are in all but Six, 
that fend their Deputies to the States, 
and make up the Sovereignty of the 

In Utrecht^ befides the Deputies of the 
Nobles, and Towns, Eight Delegates 
pf the Clergy have Seflion, and make a 
third Member m the States of the Pro-^ 
vince. Thefe are eledted out of the four 
great Chapters of the Town, the Prefer- 
ments and Revenues whereof, (though 
anciently Ecclefiaftical} yet are now ppf- 
feiTed by Lay-perfons, who are mpft of 
them Gentlemen of the Province. 

The Government of the Province 
of Friezland is wholly different from 
that of the Four Provinces already 
mentioned > and is compofed of Four 
Members, which are called. The Quar- 
fer of OftergOy confiding of Eleven 
Baillagesi Of JVejiergo^ confifting of 
Nines and oi Seveawqldmy confifting of 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

I J 8 Of their Gmjemment. Chap. IL 

Ten. Each Baillage comprehends a cer- 
tain number of Villages, Ten, Twelve, 
Fifteen, or Twenty, according to their 
fcveral Extents, The Fourth Member 
coniifts of the Towns of the Province, 
which are Eleven in Number. Thefe 
Four Members have each of them right 
of fending their Deputies to the States, 
that is, Two chofen out of every Bail- 
lage, and Two out of every Town. And 
ihefe reprefent the Sovereignty of the 
Province, and deliberate and conclude 
of all Affairs, of what Importance fo- 
ever, without any Recourfe to thofe 
who deputed them, or Obligation to 
know their Intentions, which the De- 
puties of all the former Provinces are 
ftri£tly bound to, and either muft fol- 
low the Inftruftions they bring with 
them to the Aflembly, or know the 
Refolution of their Principals before 
they conclude of any new Affair, that 

In the other Provinces, the Nobles 
of theTowns chufe the Deputies which 
compofe the States, but in Friezlarid 
the Conftitution is of quite another 
fort. For every Baillage, which is com- 
posed of a certain Extent of Country, 
and Number of Villages, (as has been 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

Chap. 11. of their Government. 1^9 

faid) is Governed by a Bailly, whom 
in their Language they call Greetman^ 
and this Officer Governs his Circuit, 
with the Affiftance of a certain number 
of Perfons, who ^re call'd his Affef- 
fors, who, together, ju<ige of all Civil 
Caufes, in the firft inftance, but with 
appeal to the Court of Juftice of the 
Province. When the States are con- 
voked, every Bailly aflcmbles together 
all the Perfons of what Quality ioever, 
who poflefs a certain Quantity of Land 
within his Diftrid, and thefe Men, by 
moft Voices, name the Two Deputies 
which each Baillage fends to the Aflem- 
bly of the States. 

This AfTembly, as it reprcfents the 
Sovereignty of the Province ; fo it 
difpofes of all vacant Charges, chufcs 
the Nine Deputies, who compofe that 
permanent College, which is the Coun- 
cil of State of the Province^ And like- 
wife Twelve Counfellors, (^that is^ Three 
for every Quarter) who compofe the 
Court of Juftice of the Province, and 
judge of all Civil Caufes inthclaft Re- 
fort, but of all Criminal from the firft 
Inftance. There being no other Crimi- 
nal Jurifdiftion, but this only, through 
the Province: Whereas, in the other 

Hosted by Google 

140 of their Government. Chap. IL 

Provinces, there is no Town which 
has it not within it felf : And feve^ 
ral, both Lord^, and Villages, have the 
High and Low Juftice belonging to 

in the Province of Groningue^ which 
is upon the fame Trad of Land, the 
Elections of the Deputies out of the 
Country are made as in Friezlandy 
by Perfons polTefs-d of fet Proporti- 
ons of Land.^ but in Overyffel^ all 
Nobles, who are .quahfyM by having 
Seigncurial Lands, make a part of the 

Thefc Three Provinces, with Weji^ 
phalia^ and all thofe Countries between 
the JVez>er^ the Tffel^ and the Rhiney 
were the Seat of the ancient Frifons^ 
who, under the Name of Saxons^ (^gi- 
ven them from the Weapon they wore, 
made like a Sithe, with the Edge out- 
wards, and caird in their Language 
Seaxes) were the fierce Conquerors of 
our Britijh liland, being call'd in upon 
the Dcfcrtion of the Roman Forces, 
and the cruel Incurfions of the Ti£is 
againft a People, whofe long Wars, at 
firft with the Romans^ and afterwards 
Servitude under them, had exhauftcd 
all the braveft Blood of their Nation, 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. IL of their Go^efnment. 1 4 J 

either in their own^ or their Matters, 
fucceediiig Quarrels, and deprefs'd the 
Heatts and Courages of the reft. 

The Bifliop of Munfierj whofc Ter- 
ritories lye in this Tra6t of Land, gave 
me the firft certain Evidences of thofe 
being the Seats of our ancient Saxonsy 
which have fince been confirmed to 
me by many things I have obferved in 
reading the Stories of thofe Times, and 
by what has been affirmed to me upon 
Enquiry of the Frizons old Language^ 
havmg ftill fo great Affinity with our 
old Englijhy as to appear eafily to have 
been the fame^ moft of their Words 
ftill retaining the fame Signification and 
Sound J very different from the Lan- 
guage of the Hollanders. This is the 
moft remarkable in a little Town cal- 
led Malcueray upon the Zudder Sea, 
in Friezland^ which is ftill built after 
the Fafhion of the oldGerman Villages, 
defcrib'd by Yacitm } without any ufe 
or obfervation of Lines or Angles ^ but 
as if every Man had built in a common 
Field, juft where he had a mind, fo as 
a Stranger, when he goes in, muft 
have a Guide to find the way out a- 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

i4i Of their Government. Chap. IL 

Upon thefe Informations^ and Re-^ 
marks, and the particular Account af- 
terwards given me of the Conftitu- 
tions of the Province of Friezland^ fo 
different from the others j I began to 
make Rcfle6tions upon them, as the Hke- 
lieft Originals of many ancient Confti- 
tutions among us, of which, no others 
can be found, and which may feem to 
have been introduced by the Saxons 
here, and by their long and abfolute 
Pofleflion of that part of the Ifle, cal- 
led England^ to have been fo planted 
and rooted among us, as to have wa- 
ded fafc, in a great meafure, through 
the fucceeding Inundations and Con- 
quefts of the T>antjh and Norman Na-^ 
rions. And, perhaps, there may be much 
Matter found for the curious Remarks 
of fome diligent, and ftudious Antiqua- 
ries, in the Comparifons of the Batlli 
or Greetman among the Frifonsy with 
our Sheriffe : Of their AJfefforSy with 
our Jufiices of Peace : Of their Judg- 
ing Civil Caufes in their Diftri6t, upon 
the firfl: Refort, but not without Appeal, 
with the Courfc of our Quarter- Sefli- 
ons : Of their chief Judicature, being 
compofed of Counfellors, of Four feve- 
ral Quarters, with our Four Circuits : 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. li* of their Gowmment. 1 4 $ 

Of thefe being the common Criminal 
judicature of the Country : Of the 
Compofition of their States, with our 
ParUamentj, atleaft, our Houfe of Com- 
mons : In the particulars of Two De- 
putes, being chofen from each Town, 
as with us^ and Two from each Baillage, 
as from each Country here: And thefe 
laft by Voices of all Perfons, poflefs'd 
of a certain Quantity of Land ^ And at 
a Meeting aiTembled by t)i(:Greet?nan to 
thatpurpofe^ And thefe Deputies ha- 
ving power to refolve of all Matters 
without Refort to thofc that chofe 'em, 
or knowledge of their Intentions > which 
are all Circumftances agreeing with our 
Conftitutions, but ablokitcly differing 
from thofe of the other Provinces in 
the United States, and from the com- 
pofition, I think, of the States, either 
now, or formerly, ufed in the other 
Nations of Europe, 

To this Original, I fuppofe, we like- 
wife owe what I have often wondered 
at, that in England we neither fee, 
nor find upon Record, any Lord, or 
Lordfliip, that pretends to have the 
Exercife of Judicature belong to it, 
either that which is called High, or 
Low, Juftice, which feems to be a Badge 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

1 44 0/ their Government: Chap. IL 

of Ibme ancient Sovereignty : Though 
we fee them very frequent among our 
Neighbours, both under more arbitra- 
ry Monarchies, and under the moft 
free and popular States; 


Hosted by LjOOQIC 



Of their Situation. 

Holland^ Zealand^ Friezland arid 
Groninguen^ are feated upon the 
Sea, and make the Strength and Great- 
nefs of this State : The other Three, 
with the conquered Towns in Brabantj 
Flanders^ and Cleve^ make only the 
Outworks or Frontiers, fcrving chiefly 
for Safety and Defence of thefe. No 
Man can tell the ftrange and mighty 
Changes, that may have been made 
in the Face and Bounds of Maritime 
Countries, at one time or other, by 
furious Inundations, upon the unufual 
Concurrence of Land-Floods, Winds, 
and Tides j and therefore no Man 
knows, whether the Province of Hal- 
landy may not have been, in fome 
paft Ages, all Wood, and rough une- 
qual Ground, as fome old Traditions 
go 5 and levelled to what we fee, by 
the Sea's breaking in, and continuing 
long upon the Land 5 fince, recovered 
by its Recefs, and with the help of In- 
duftry. For it is evident, that the Sea, 
for fome fpace of Years, advances con- 
L tinually 

Hosted by Google 

I 4 (J Of their Situation. Chap. IIL 

tiiiually upon one Coaft, retiring from 
the oppofite ^ and in another Age, 
quite changes this courfe, yielding up 
what it had feized, and feizing what 
it had yielded up, without any Reafon 
to be given of fuch contrary Motions. 
But, 1 fuppofe, this great Change was 
made in Hollandy when the Sea jfirft 
parted England from the Continent, 
breaking through a Neck of Land be- 
tween '5D^wr and Calais 'y Which may 
be a Tale, but I am fur e is no Re- 
cord. It is certain, on the contrary, 
that Sixteen Hundred Years ago, there 
was no ufual Mention or Memory of 
any fuch Changes > and that the face 
of all thefe Coails, and nature of the 
Soil, efpecially that of Holland^ was 
much as it is now, allowing only the 
Improvements of Riches, Time, and In- 
duftry-, which appears by the Defcrip- 
. ^^^ ^}ion made in Tacitus^ both of the Li- 
jP/^^/^rmW-mits of thellle o^ Batavia^ and theNa> 
fium fl'griiyj^^^ of the Soil, as well as the Climate, 
/^T^X^Jwith the very Names, and courfe of Ri- 
amnes di- ytxSy fliU remaining. 

'viditur, ad . 

Gallic am rifam latior i^ placidwr verfo ccgnomento Vahaleni' ac(oh 
dicunty mox id quo que 'vocabulum mutat Mo fa flumimy ejufiHe im^ 
minfi or$ eundem in Octanum effanditur. 

Cum interim flexti Autumni ^ crebris imbribm fuferfufus amni^ 
falnfirem hnmilemque Infulam in famm Stagni offUvit, 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap* III. of their Situation. 147 

*Tis likely, the Changes arrived iince 
that Age in thefe Countries, may have 
been made by Stoppages grown in 
time, with the rolling of Sands upon 
the Mouths of Three great Rivers, 
which difembogued into the Sea through 
the Coafts of thefe Provinces 5 that is, 
the Rhine^ the Mofe^ and the Scheld. 
The ancient Rhine divided, where 
Skenckfconce now flands, into two Ri- 
vers \ of which, one kept the Name, 
*till running near Leyden^ it fell into 
the Sea at Catwick^ where are ftill 
feen, at low Tides, the Foundations of 
an ancient Roman Caftle that- com- 
manded the Mouth of this River: But 
this is wholly ftopt up^ though a great 
Canal ftill preferves the Name of the 
Old Rhine. The Mofe^ runnipg by 
^ort.znd Rotteydam^ fell, as it:, now 
does>! into the Sea at the jBr/>4;^with 
mighty iflues of W^terv buttheSands, 
gathered for Three or Four Leagues upon 
this Coaft, make .the Haven extream 
dangej^ousi without great skill of Pi- 
lots, and ufe of Pilot-boats, that 'come 
out with every Tide, to welcome and 
fecuire_the Ships bound for that River : 
And it is probabkj tliat thefe Sands, 
having :obftru£ted. the £ree Courfe of 
L 2 the 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

48 of their Situation. Chap. IIL 

the River has at times caufed or en- 
creased thofe Inundations, out of which 
fo many Illand^ have been recover'd^ 
and of which, that part of the Coun- 
try is fo much composed. 

The Scheld fecms to have had its 
Ifllie hj IValcherin in Zealand^ which 
was an Ifland in the Mouth of that 
River, 'till the Inundations of that, and 
the Mofe-i feem to have been join'd 
together^ by fome great Helps, or Ir- 
ruptions of the Sea, by which, the 
whole Country ^as overwhelmed, 
which now makes that Inland-Sea, that 
ferves for a common Paflage between 
Holland^ Zealand^ Flanders-i and Bra- 
bant : Th!Z Sea, for fome Leagues from 
Zealand^ lyes generally upon fuch 
Banks of Sand, as it does upon the 
Mouth of the Ma^e^ though feparated 
by ^^mething better Channels than are 
found in the other. 

That which feems likelieft to have 
been the occafion of flopping up 
wholly one of thefe Rivers, and ob- 
ftruiiting the others, is the courfe of 
Wcjflerly Winds, (which drive upon 
this Shore} being fo much more conftanc 
and violent than the Eaft : For, taking 
the Scafons, and Yeans one with ano- 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. III. Of theh Situation. 149 

ther, I fuppofe, there will be obfervM 
three parts of Weftcrly for one Ea- 
fterly Winds : Befides, that thefe genCr 
rally attend the calm Froils and fair 
Weather j and the other the ftormy 
and foul. And I hav« had occafiori 
to make Experiment of the Sands ri- 
fing and linking before a Haven, by 
two fits of thele contrary Windsy a- 
bove four Foot. This, I prefume, is like- 
wife the natural Reafon of fo many 
deep and commodious Havens found 
upon all the Ef^glijh fide of the Channel, 
and fo few, (or indeed none} upon the 
French and Dutch : An Advantage feem- 
ing to be given us by Nature, and ne<- 
ver to be equalPd by any Art, or Ex- 
pence, of our Neighbours. 

I remember no mention in ancient 
Authors of that, which is now call'd 
the ZudderSea j which makes, me 
imagine. That may have been, formed 
likewifc by fome great Inundation, 
breaking in between the Z'^Z-Iflands, 
and others, that lye ftill in a Line con- 
tiguous, and like the broken remain- 
ders of a continued CoaQ:. This feems 
more probable, from the great fliallow- 
jaefs of that Sea, and flatnefs of the 
,Sai)ds, upon the whole E^ctent of it^ 
L 3 from 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

^5^ Of theW Situation. Chap.IIL 

from the violent Rage of (he Waters 
breaking in that way, which threaten 
the parts of North-Holland about Me^ 
dtnbhck and Enchufen^ and brave it o- 
ver the higheft and ftrongeft Digues 
of the Province:^ upon every High Tide, 
and ftorm at North-weft. As Ukewife 
from the Names of Eaji and fVeJl 
Friezlandy which (hould have been one 
Continent, 'till divided by this Sea : 
For, in the Time of Tacitus^ no other 
Diftinftion was known, but that of 
Greater or LefTcr Frizons^ and 
A frente Trifii ex- that only from the meafure of 
gS«/?r;;# then- Numbers, or Forces j and 
'vocai?uium,exmocio though they wcrc faid to have 
^iriHrnutr^^uem- ^^^^^ L^]^^s among them, yet 

ttQnes ufcr, ad Ocea^ t> a ,' J 

nnm Rheno pr^tex- that Word ICCmS tO impOrt 
untur ^ ambiuntqi |-|^^y ^^^^ ^f f^^Q^ Water, 

^/^. Tacit. deMor. which IS made yet plainer by 
Ger. the Word ^ Ambiunt ^ that 

fliews thofe Lakes to have been inha- 
bited round by thefe Nations 5 from 
all this I fhould guefs, that the more 
Inland part of the Zudder ^Sca, was 
one of the Lakes there mentioned, be- 
tween which apd the Tejfell and Ulie 
Iflands, there lay anciently a great Traft 
of Land, (^where the Sands are ftill fo 
(hallow^ and fo contiKiu'd, as feems to 


Hosted by Google 

chap. HI. of their Situation. i ? i 

make it evident:) But fince covered by 
fonie great Irruptions of Waters^ that 
joined thofe of the Sea, and the Lake 
together, and thereby made that great 
Bay, now calPd the ZtidderSea^ by fa- 
vour whereof the Town o^ Amfterdam 
has grown to be the mod frequented 
Haven of the World. 

Whatever \t was, whether Nature or 
Accident, and upon whatOccalion foe- 
ver it arrived. The Soil of the whole 
Province of Holland is generally flat, 
hke the Sea in a Calm, and looks as if 
after a long Contention between Land 
and Water, which It (hould belong to. 
It had at length been divided between 
them : Fgr to confider the great Ri- 
vers, and the ftrange number of Ca- 
nals that are found in this Province, 
and do not only lead to every great 
Town, but almoft to every Village, 
and every Farm-Houfe in the Coun- 
try J and the Infinity of Sails that 
are feen every where courfing up and 
down upon . them •, one would ima- 
gine the Water to have (har'd with 
the Land ^ and the People that live in 
Boats, to hold fome proportion with 
thofe that live in Houfes. And this is one 
great Advantage towards Trade, which 
L 4 is 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

j j I of their Situation. Chap, IIL 

is natural to the Situation, and not to 
be attained in any Country, where 
there is not the fame level and fofr- 
nefs of Soil, which makes the cutting 
of Canals fo eafie Work, as to be at- 
tempted almoft by every private Man : 
And one Horfe (liall draw in a Boat 
more than fifty can do by Cart, whereas 
Carriage makes a great part of the 
Price m all heavy Commodities : And 
by this eafie way of Travelling, an in- 
duftrious Man lofes no time from his 
Bufinefs, for he Writes, or Eats, or 
Sleeps, while he goes > whereas the 
Time of Labouring or Induftrious Men, 
is the greatcft Native Commodity of 
any Country. 

There is, befides, one very great 
Lake of frefli Water dill remaining in 
the midft of this Province, by the name 
pf Hark Maer^ which might, as they 
fay, be eaiily drained, and would there- 
by make a mighty Addition of Land 
to a Country, where norhing is more 
wanted ; and receive a great quantity 
o^ People, in \vhich they abound, and 
who make their Greatnefs and Riches. 
Much Dil^rourfe there has been about 
fuch an Attempt, but the City oi Ley- 
dm having no other way of refrefh- 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. III. of their Situation. 1 5 j 

ing their Town, or renewing the Wa- 
ter of their Canals, but from this 
Maer^ will never confent to it. On 
the other iide, Amfterdam will ever 
oppofc the opening and cleanfing of 
the old Channel of the Rhiney which, 
they fay, might eaiily be compaflcd, 
and by which, the Town of Leyden 
would grow Maritime, and fliare a 
great part of the Trade now engrof- 
fed by Amfierdam, There is in Norths 
Holland an Eflay already made, at the 
poflibility of draining thefe great 
Lakes, by one, of about two Leagues 
broad, having been made firm Land, 
within this Forty Years : This makes 
that part of the Country called the 
Bemfter^ being now the richeft Soil of 
the Province, lying upon a dead flat, 
divided with Canals, and the Ways 
through it diftinguifh'd with Ranges of 
Trees, which make the pleafantefl: 
Summer- Landfchip of any Country I 
have feen, of that fort. 

Another Advantage of their Situa- 
tion of Trade, is made by thofe Two 
great Rivers of the Rhine and Mofe^ 
reaching up, and Navigable, fo mighty 
a length, into fo rich and populous 
Countries of the Higher and Lower 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

X54 Of their Situation. Chap, IIL 

Germany} which as it brings down all 
the Commodities from thofc Parts to 
the Magazines of Holland^ that vent 
them by their Shipping into all Parts 
of the World, where the Market calls 
for them j fo, with fomething more 
Labour and Time, it returns all the 
Merchandizes of other Parts, into thofe 
Countries, that are feated upon thcfe 
Streams. For their commodious Seat, as 
to the Trade of the Streights^ or Bd-^ 
tique^ or any Parts of the Ocean, I fee 
no Advantage they have of mod Parts 
of England j and they muft certainly 
yield to many we poflcfs, if we had 
other equal Circumftances to value 

The Lownefs and Flatnefs of their 
Lands, makes in a great meafure the 
Richnefs of their Soil, that is eafily 
overflowed every Winter, fo as the 
whole Country, at that Seafon, feems 
to lye under Water, which, in Spring, is 
driven out again by Mills. But that 
which mends the Earth, fpoils the Air? 
which would be all Fog and Mift, if 
it were not clearM by the (harpnefs of 
their Frofts, which never fail with eve- 
ry Eafl: Wind for about Four Months 
of the Year, and are much fiercer than 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

Chap. III. Of their Situation. 155^ 

in the fame Latitude with us, becaufe 
that Wind comes to them over a mighty 
length of dry Continent > but is inoift- 
ned by the VapourSj or io^tcn'd by the 
warmth of the Seas motion, before it 
reaches us. 

And this is the greateft Difadvantagc 
of Trade they receive from their Si- 
tuation, though neceflary to their 
Health i becaufe many times their Ha- 
vens are all ihut up for Two or Three 
Months with Ice, when ours are open 
and free. 

The fierce Sharpnefs of thefe Winds 
makes the Changes of their Weather 
and Seafons more violent and furpri- 
ling, than in any place I know ; fo as 
a warm faint Air turns in a Night to 
a fliarp Froft, with the Wind coming 
into the North-Eaft : And the contrary 
with another Change of Wind. The 
Spring is much (horter, and lefs agree- 
able, than with us J the Winter much 
colder, and fome parts of the Summer 
much hotter 5 and Ihave known more 
than once, the violence of one give 
way to that of the other, like the cold- 
Fit of an Ague to the hot, without any 
good Temper between. 

The Flatnefs of their Land expofes 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

J ^6 of their Situation, Chap. IIL 

it to the danger of the Sea, and for- 
ces them to infinite Charge in the con- 
tinual Fences and Repairs of their Banks 
to oppofe it i which employ yearly 
more Men, than all the Corn of the 
Province of Holland could maintain, 
(as one of their chief Minifters has 
told me.) They have lately found the 
common Sea-weed to be the beft Ma- 
terial for thefe Digues, which faften d 
with a thin mixture of Earth, yields 
a httle to the force of the Sea, and 
returns when the Waves give back: 
Whether, they are thereby the fafer 
againft Water, as, they fay, Hou fes that 
ftiake are againft Wind ^ or whether, 
as pious NaturaUfts obferve, all things 
carry about them that which ferves for 
a Remedy againft. the mifchief they dq 
in the World. 

The extream moifture of the Air, I 
take to be the occafion of the great 
neatnefs in their Houfes, and clean- 
linefs in their Towns. For without 
the help of thofe Cuftoms, their 
Country would not be habitable by 
fuch Crowds of People, but the Air 
would corrupt upon every hot Seafon, 
and expofe the Inhabitants to general 
^nd infeftious Difeafes > which they 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

Chap, III. of their Situation. i 5 7 

hardly efcape three Summers together, 
elpedally about Leyden^ where the Wa- 
ters are not fo eafily renewed, and for 
this reafon> I fuppofe, it is^ thzt Leyden 
is found to be the neateft and ckanheft 
kept, of all their Towns. 

The fame moifture of Air makes all 
Metals apt to ruft^ and Wood to 
mould y which forces them, by continu- 
al Pains of rubbing and fcouring, to 
feck a* PreventioHj Or Cure : This 
makes the brightnefs and cleannefs that 
fcems affeftedin their Houfes, and is 
caird naturaJ to them, by People who 
think no further. So the deepnefs of 
their Soil, and wetnefs of Seafons, 
which would render it unpaffable, forces 
'themj not only tOj^exadnefs of Paving 
in their Streets, but to the expence of 
to long Cawiles between many of their 
Towns, and in their High--ways. As 
indeed, moft National Cuftoms are the 
EfFeft of fome unfeen, or unobfervcd, 
naturaj Caufes, or Neceflitics, 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 


C H A P. IV. 

Of their People and Dijpojttiofis. 

THE F cople o( Hol/and may be 
divided into thefe feveral Clafles : 
The Clowns or Boorsi (as they call 
them,} who cultivate the Land. ,The 
Mariners or Schippers, who fupply their 
Ships, and Inland^Boats. The Mer- 
chants or Traders, who fill their Towns. 
The Renteeners^ or Men that live in 
all their chief Cities upon the Rents 
or Intcreft of Eftatcg formerly acquirM 
in their Families : : And the Gentlemen, 
and Oificers of their Armies. 
. The firfl: are a Race of People diligent 
rather than laborious a, dull and How 
of Underftanding, and fo riot dealt 
with by hafty Words, but manag'd ea- 
fily by foft and fair> and yielding to 
plain Reafon, if you give them time 
to underftand it. In the Country 
and Villages, not too near the great 
Towns,: they feem plain and honeft, 
and content with their own 5 fo that 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. IV. Of their Peopkj .&CC. iss> 

if, in Bounty, you give them a Shilling 
for what is worth but a Groat, they 
will take the current Price, and give 
you the reft again -, if you bid them 
take it, they know not what you 
mean, and fometimes ask, if you are a 
Fool. They know no other Good, 
but the Supply of what Nature re- 
quires, and the common increafe of 
Wealth. They feed moft upon Herbs, 
Roots, and Milks-, and by that means^ 
I fuppofe, neither their Strength, nor 
Vigour, feems anfwerableto the Size, or 
Bulk, of their Bodies, 

The Mariners are a plain, but much 
rougher People 5 whether from the E- 
lement they live in, or from their 
Food, which is generally Fiih, and 
Corn, and heartier than that of the 
Boors. They are Surly, and Bl-man- 
ncr'd, which is miftaken for Pride ^ 
butr I believe, is learnt, as all Manners 
are, by the Converfatioa we ufe. Now 
theirs lying only among one another, or 
with Winds and Waves, which arc 
not mov'd or wrought upon by any 
Language, or Obfervance ^ or to be 
dealt with, but by Pains, and by Pa- 
tience/. Thefe are all the Qualities 
their Mariners have learnt j their Va- 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

1 60 ' of their People Chap. IV. 

lour is Taffive rather than ABive^ and 
their Language is little more, than 
what is of neceflary ufe to their Bufi- 

The Merchants and Tradefmen, 
both the greater and Mechanick, li- 
ving in 1 owns that are of great re- 
fort, both by Strangers and Paflengers 
of their own, are more Mercurial^ 
(Wit being (harpen'd by Commerce 
and Converfation of Cities,) though 
they are not very inventive, which is 
the Gift of warmer Heads > yet are they 
great in Imitation, and fo far, many 
times, as goes beyond the Originals: 
Of mighty Induftry, and conftant Ap- 
plication to the Ends, they propofc 
and purfue. They make ufe of their 
Skill, and their Wit, to take Advan- 
tage of other Mens Ignorance and 
Folly, they deal with, are great Ex- 
afters, where the Law is in their own 
Hands. In other Points, where they 
deal with Men that underftand like 
themfelves, and are under the reach of 
Juftice and LawS;, they are the plain- 
eft and beft Dealers in the World ; , 
which feems not to grow fo much 
from a Principle of Confcience, or 
Morality^ as from a Cuftom or Habit 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. IV and Dtfpojitions. iCi 

introduced by the neceility of Trade a- 
mong them, which depends as much 
upon Common Honefty, as War does 
upon Difciplines and without which all 
would break up, Merchants would turn 
Pedlars, and Soldiers Thieves. 
' Thofe Famihes which live upon 
their Patrimonial Eftates in all the 
great Cities, are a People differently 
bred, and manner'd from the Traders, 
though like them in the Modefty of 
Garb and Habit, and the Parfimony 
of living. Their Youth are generally 
bred up at Schools, and at the Uni- 
verlitics of Ley den or Utrecht'^ in the 
common Studies of Human Learning, 
but chiefly of the Civil Law, which 
is that of their Country, at leaft as 
far as it is fo in France and Spain. 
For, (as much as I underftand of 
thofe Countries) no Decifions or De* 
crees of the Civil Law, nor Confti* 
tutions of the Roman Emperors, have 
the Force or Current of Law among 
them, as is commonly believed, but 
only the Force of Reafons when al- 
ledged before their Courts of Judica-^ 
ture, as for as the Authority of Men 
efleemed wife, pafTes for Reafon : But 
the ancient Cuftoms of thofe fevcral 
M Coun* 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

1^2. of their People Chap. I V. 

Countries) an J the Ordonnances of their 
Kings and Princes, conlented to by the 
EftateS) or in iv'/.v^r^ verify 'd by Parlia- 
ments, have only the Strength and Au- 
thority of Lav/ among them. 

Where thefe Families are rich, their 
Youths, after the courfe of their Stu- 
dies at horne, travel for fome Years, as 
the Sons of our Gentry ufe to do 3 but 
their Journies are chkRy into England 
and France^ not njuch into Italy ^ fel- 
domer into Spain:, nor often into the 
more Northern Countries> unlefs in 
Company of Tram of their PubUck 
Minifters. The chief End of their 
Breeding, is, to make them fit for the 
Service of their Country in the Magi- 
ftracy of their Towns, their Provm- 
ces, and their State. And of thefe kind 
of Men are the Civil Officers of this 
Government generally compofed, be- 
ing defcended of Families^ who have 
many times been conftantly in the Ma- 
giftracy of their Native Towns for 
many Years> and fome for feveral A- 

Such were moft or all of the chief 
Minifters, and the, Perfons that compo- 
fed their chief Councils, in the time 
of my Refidence among them, and not 


Hosted by Google 

chap. IV. and Difpqfitions. 1 6 3 

Men of mean or Mechanick Trades^ as 
it is commonly received among Foreign- 
ers, and makes the Subjed: of Comical 
Jefts upon their Government. This 
does not exclude many Merchants^ or 
Traders in grofs, from being often {^ctn 
in the Offices of their Cities^, and. 
fometimes deputed to their States > nor 
feveral of their States, from turning 
their Stocks in the Management of 
fome very beneficial Trade by Ser- 
vants, and Houfes maintained to that 
purpofe. But the Generality of the 
States and Magiftrates are of the other 
fort 5 their Eftates confifting in the 
Penfions of their Publick Charges, in 
the Rents of Lands, or Intereft of 
Mony upon the CantoreSp or in Aftions 
of the Eaji-India Company, or in Shares 
upon the Adventures of great Trading- 

Nor do thefe Families, habituated as 
it were tq the Magiftracy of their 
Towns and Provinces, ufually arrive 
at great or exceflive Riches > the Sa- 
laries ,of Publick Employments and 
Intereft being low, but the Revenue of 
Lands .being yet very much lower,; 
and feldom exceeding the Profit of Two 
in the Hundred. They content them- 
) Ml felvcs 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

rtf 4 Of their People Chap. IV. 

felves with the Honour of being ufeful 
to the Publick, with the Eftecm of 
their Cities or their Country, and with 
the Eafe of their Fortunes j which fel- 
dom fails, by the Frugality of their li- 
ving, grown univerfal by being (I fup- 
pofc) at firft necefTary, but fince ho- 
nourable, among them. 

The mighty Growth and Excefs of 
Riches is fecn among the Merchants and 
Traders, whofe Application lyes whol- 
ly that way, and who arc the better 
content to have fo little (hare in the 
Government, defiring only Security in 
what they pofTefs ; troubled with no 
Cares but thofe of their Fortunes, and 
the Management of their Trades, and 
turning the reft of their Time and 
Thought to the Divertifement of their 
Lives. Yet thefe, when they attain great 
Wealth, chufe to breed up their Sons in 
the Way, and marry their Daughters 
into the Families of thofe others moft 
generally credited in their Towns, and 
verled in their Magiftracies j and there- 
by introduce thei; Families into the way 
of Government and Honour, which con- 
fifts not h re in Titles, but in Publick 
The next Rank among them, is that 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

Ciiap. IV. and Difpojitions. ' 16^5 

of their Gentlemen or Nobles, who,in the 
Province of Holland^ (10 which I chief- 
ly confine thefe Obfervations} are very 
few, moft of the Famihes having been 
extinguiflied in the long Wars with 
Spain. But thofe that remain, are in 
a manner all employed in the Military 
or Civil Charges of the Province or 
State. Thefe are, in their Cuftoms, and 
Manners, and way of living, a good 
deal different from the reft of the Peo- 
ple j and having been bred much a- 
broad, rather afteft the Garb of their 
Neighbour Courts, than the Popular 
Air of their own Country. They va- 
lue themfelves more upon their No- 
bility, than Men do in other Coun- 
tries, where ^tis more common ^ and 
would think themfelves utterly difho- 
noured by the Marriage of one that 
were not of their Rank, though it 
were to make up the broken Forrune 
of a Noble Family, by the Wealth of 
a Tlebean. They ftrive to imitate the 
French^ in their Mien, their Cloaths, 
their way of Talk, of Eating, of Gal- 
lantry or Debauchery ; and are, in my 
Mind, fomething worfethan they would 
be, by affefting to be better than they 
/iced) making fometimes but ill Copies, 
M 5 whereas 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

1 66 Of their People Chap. IV. 

whereas they might be good Originals, 
by refining or improving the Culloms 
and Virtues proper to their own Coun- 
try and CUmate. They are otherwife 
an Honeftj Well-natur'd, Friendly, 
and Gentlemanly fort of Men> and ac- 
quit themfelves generally with Honour 
and Merit, where their Country em- 
ploys them. 

The Officers of their Armies live 
after the Cuftoms and Fafliions of the 
Gentlemen > and fo do many Sons of 
the rich Merchants, who, returning 
from Travel abroad, have more defigns 
upon their own Fleafure, and the Va- 
nity of appearing, than upon the Ser- 
vice of their Country : Or, if they 
pretend to enter into that, it is rather 
by the Army than the State. And all 
thefe are generally defirous to fee a 
Court in their Country, that they 
may value themfelves at home, by the 
Quahties they have learnt abroad-, and 
make a Figure, which agrees better 
with their own Humour, and the man- 
ner of Courts, than with the Cuftoms 
and Orders, that prevail in more Popu- 
lar Governments. 

Thefe are fome Cuftoms, or Difpo- 
iitions, that feem to run generally 


Hosted by Google 

chap, IV. and Difpojitions. iCy 

through all thefe Degrees of Men a- 
mong them •, as great Frugality, and 
Order3 in their Expences, Their com- 
mon Riches lye in every Man's having 
more than he fpends •, or, to fay it 
more properly, In every Man's fpend- 
ing lefs than he has coming in, be that 
what It will : Nor does it enter into 
Mens Heads among them. That the com- 
mon port or coiirfe of Expence fliould 
equal the Revenue^ and when this hap- 
pens, they think at leaft they have liv'd 
that Year to no purpoi'e 5 and the 
train of it difcredits a Man among 
them, as much as any vitious or prodi< 
gal Extravagance does in oiher Coun- 
tries. This enables every Man to bear 
their extream Taxes, and makes them 
lefs fenlible than they would be in o- 
ther Places: For he that lives upon 
Two Parts in Five of what he has 
coming in, if he pays Two more to 
the State, he does but part with what 
he (hould have laid up, and had no 
prefent Ufe for > whereas, he that fpends 
yearly what he receives, if he pays but 
the Fiftieth Part to the Publick, it goes 
from him like that which was neceffary 
to buy Bread or Cloaths for himfelf or 
his Family. 

M 4 This 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

i^g of their People Chap. IV. 

This makes the Beauty and Strength 
of their Towns, the Commodioufnefs 
of Travelling in their Country by 
their Canals, Bridges, and Cawfeys^ 
the Pleafantnefs of their Walks, and 
their Grafts in and near all their Ci- 
ties : And in (hort, the Beauty, Con- 
venience, and fometimes Magnificence, 
of their Publick Works, to which eve- 
ry Man pays as willingly, and takes as 
much Plealure and Vanity in them, as 
thofe of other Countries do in the 
fame Circumftances, among the PofTef- 
lions of their Families, or private In- 
heritance. What they can fpare, be- 
fides the neceflary Expence of their 
Dorneftick, the Publick Payments, 
and the common courfe of ftill en- 
creafing their Stock, is laid out in the 
Fabrick, Adornment, or Furniture of 
their Houfes: Things not fo tranfitory, 
or fo prejudicial to Health, and to Bu- 
Unefs, as the conftant Excefles and 
Luxury of Tables^ nor perhaps alto- 
gether fo vain as the extravagant Ex- 
pen ccs of Cloaths and Attendance ; at 
leaft, thefe end wholly in a Man's felf^ 
and the Satisfaftion of his perfonal Hu- 
mour J whereas the other make not 
only the Riches of a Family^ but con- 

Hosted by LjOOQIC 

chap. IV. and Diffofitions. 1 6s> 

tribute much towards the publick Beau- 
ty and Honour of a Country. 

The Order in cafting up their Ex- 
pences, is fo ^reat and general, that 
no Man offers at any Undertaking) 
which he is not prepared for, and Ma- 
iler of his Defign, before he begins-, 
fo as I have neither obferved nor heard 
of any Building, pubUck or private, 
that has not been finiftied in the time 
dciigned for it. So are their Canals, 
Cawfeys, and Bridges j fo was their 
Way from tht Hague to SkeveUng^ a 
Work that might have become the 
old Romans'^ confidering how foon it 
was difpatch'd. The Houfe at the Haguey 
built purpofely for cafting of Cannon, 
was finifh'd in one Summer, during the 
Heat of the firft Engltjh War, and looked 
rather hke a Defign of Vanity in their 
Government, than Neceffity or Ufe, 
The Stadthoufe oi Amfierdam has been 
left purpofely to Time, without any 
Limitation in the firft Defign, either of 
that, or of Expence j both that the 
Diligence apd the Genius of fo many 
fucceeding M^giftrates fliould be em- 
ployed in the CoUeftion of all things, 
that could be efteem'd proper to en- 
creafc the Beauty or Magnificence of 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

170 Of their People Chap/IV. 

that Strufture; and perhaps a little to 
reprieve the Experiment of a current 
Prediftion, That the Trade of that Ci- 
ty fliould begin to fall the fame Year 
the Stadthoufe (hould be finilVd^ as it 
did at Antwerp. 

Charity feems to be very National 
among them, though it be regulated 
ty Orders of the Country, and not 
ufually mov'd by the common Objedts 
of Compaflion. But it is fcen in the 
admirable Provisions that are r^iade but 
of it for all fort of Perfons that can 
want, or ought to be kept, in a Go- 
vernment. Among the many and va- 
rious Hofpitals, that are in every Mans 
Curiofity and Talk that travels their 
Country, I was affeiled with none 
more than that of the aged Sea- Men 
at Enchufyen-i which is contrived, fi- 
nifhed and ordered, as if it were done 
with a kind Intention of fome well-na- 
tur'd Man, that thofe, who had paft 
their whole Lives in the Hardfliips and 
Incommodities of the Sea, fliould find 
a Retreat ftor'd with all the Eafes and 
Conveniences, that Old Age is capable 
of feeling and enjoying. And here I 
TCitt with the only rich Man, that I ever 
faw in my Life : For one of thefe old 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. IV. and Difpojttionf. 171 

Sea-Men eiitertaining me a good while 
with the plain Stories of his Fifty 
Years Voyages and Adventures, while 
I was viewing their Hofpital, and the 
Church adjoining 3 I gave him at part- 
ing a piece of their Coin about the 
value of a Crown : He took it fmi- 
ling> and offer'd it me again •, but 
whcii I refused it, he askt me. What he 
fliould do with Mony ? for all that 
ever they wanted, was provided for 
them at their Houfe. I left him to 
overcome his Modefty as he could ^ 
but a Servant coming after me, faw 
him give it to a little Girl that opened 
the Church-door, as (he pafs'd by him: 
Which made me reflect upon the fan- 
taftick Calculation of Riches and Po- 
verty that is current in the World, by 
which a Man that wants a Million, is 
a Prince > He that wants but a Groat, 
is a Beggar i and this was a poor Man, 
that wanted nothing at alL 

In general, All Appetites and Pafli- 
ons feem to run lower and cooler 
here, than in other Countries where I 
have conversM. Avarice may be excep- 
ted. And yet that (hall not be fo 
violent, where it feeds only upon In- 
duftry and Parfimony, as where it 


Hosted by Google 

i-j-L Of their People Chap. IV. 

breaks out into Fraud, Rapine, and 
Oppreflion. But Quarrels are feldom 
ittn among them, unTefs in their Drink, 
Revenge rarely heard of, or Jealoufie 
known. Their Tempers arc not airy 
enough for Joy, or any unufual Strains 
of pleafant Humour -, nor warm enough 
for Love. This is talkt of fometimes 
among the younger Men> but as a 
thing they have heard of, rather than 
felt 3 and as a Difcourfe that becomes 
them, rather than affefts them. I have 
known fome among them, that pcrfo- 
natcd Lovers w^ll enough 3 but none 
that I ever thought were at heart in 
Love J nor any of the Women, that 
feem'd at all to care whether they were 
fo or no. Whether it be, that they arc 
fuch Lovers of their Liberty, as not to 
bear the Servitude of a Miftrefs, any 
more than that of a Matter 5 or, that 
the Dulnefs of their Air renders them lels 
fufceptible of more refined Paflions> 
or, that they are diverted from it by 
the general Intention every Man has 
upon his Bufincfs, whatever it is (no- 
thing being fo mortal an Enemy of 
Love, that fuffers no Rival, as any Bent 
of Thought another way.} 


Hosted by Google 

chap. IV. and Dlfpojttions. ij^ 

The fame Caufes may have had the 
fame EfFeds among their Married Wo- 
men, who have the whole Care and 
abfolute Management of all their Do- 
meftick ^ and live with very gene- 
ral good Fame : A certain fort of 
Chaftity being hereditary and habitual 
among them, as Probity among the 

The fame Dulnefs of Air may dif- 
pofe them to that ftrange Afliduity and 
conftant Application of their Minds, 
with that perpetual Study and Labour 
upon any thing they defign and take 
in hand. This gives them Patience to 
purfue the Queft of Riches by fo long 
Voyages and Adventures to the Indiesy 
and by fo long Parfimony as that of 
their whole Lives. Nay, I have (for 
a more particular Example of this Dif- 
pofition among them) known one Man 
that was employed Four and Twenty 
Years about the making and perfefting 
of a Globe, and another above Thirty 
about the inlaying of a Table. Nor 
does any Man know, how much may 
have been contributed towards the 
great things in all kinds, both pub- 
lick and private, that have been at- 
chieved among them by this one Hu- 

Hosted by VjOOQ IC 

174 ^/ their People Chap IV. 

mour of never giving over what they 
imagine may be brought to pafs, nor 
leavmg one Scent to follow another 
they meet with •, which is the Pro- 
perty of the lighter and more ingeni- 
ous Nations : And the Humour of a 
Government being ufually the fame 
with that of the Ferfons that compofe 
it, not only in this, but m all other 
Points •, fo as, where Men that govern 
are Wife, Good, Steady and Juit, the 
Government will appear fo too > and 
the contrary, where they are other- 

The fame Qualities in their Air 
may encline them to the Entertain- 
ments and Cuftoms of Drinking, which 
are fo much laid to their Charge, and, 
for ought I know, may not only be 
necelTary to their Health, (^as they ge- 
nerally believe it,) . but to the Vigour 
and Improvement of their Underftand- 
ings, in the midft of a thick foggy 
Air, and fo much Coldnefs of Temper 
and Complexion, For though the tJfe 
or Excefs of Drinking may deftroy 
Mens AbiUties who live in better Cli- 
males, and are of warmer Confcitu- 
tionss Wine to hot Brains being like 
Oyl to Fire, and making the Spirits, by 


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Chap, IV. and Difpojttions. 175 

too much Lightnefs, evaporate into 
Smoak, and perfeft aiery Imaginations > 
or, by too much Heat, rage nito Fren- 
zy, or at leaft into Humours and 
Thoughts, that have a great Mixture 
of it 'y yet on the other fide, it may 
improve Mens Parts and Abilities of 
cold Complexions, and in dull Air ^ and 
may be necejflary to thaw and move 
the frozen or unaftive Spirits of the 
Brain > to rowze fleepy Thought, and 
refine groffer Imaginations, and per- 
haps to animate the Spirits of the 
Heart, as well as enliven thofe of the 
Brain : Therefore the old Germans 
feem'd to have fome Reafon in their 
Cuftom, not to execute any great Re- 
folutions which had not been twice 
debated, and agreed at two feveral 
AfTemblies, one iji an Afternoon, 
and t'other in a Mornings Becaufe, 
they thought, their Counfels might 
w^ant Vigour when they were fober, 
as well as Caution when they had 

Yet in Holland I have obferved ve- 
ry few of their chief Officers or Mini- 
Iters of State vitious in this kind 5 or 
if they drunk much, 'twas only at fee 
Feafts, and rather to acquit themfelves, 


Hosted by Google 

I -J 6 Of their People Cliap. IV. 

than of Choice or Inclination : And for 
the Merchants and Traders, with whom 
it is cuftomary, they never do it in a 
Morning, nor 'till they come from 
the Exchange, where the Bulinefs of 
the Day is commonly difpatclVdj nay, 
it hardly enters into their Heads, that 
'tis lawful to drink at all before that 
time> but they will excufe it, if you 
come to their Houfe, and tell you how 
forry they are you come in a Morning, 
when they cannot offer you to drink 5 
as if at that time of Day it were not 
only unlawful for them to drink them- 
felves, but fo much as for a Stranger to 
do it within their Walls. 

The Afternoon, or, atleaft, the Even- 
ing, is given to whatever they find 
will divert them 5 and is no more than 
needs, confidering how they fpend the 
reft of the Day, in Thought, or in 
Cares ^ in Toils, or in Bufinefs. For 
Nature cannot hold out with conftant 
Labour of Body, and as little with con- 
ftant Bent, or Application, of Mind: 
Much Motion of the fame Parts of the 
Brain either wearies and waftes them too 
fafl: for Repair, or elfc (^as it were} fires 
the Wheels, and fo ends, either in ge- 
neral Decays of the Body, or Diftrafti- 


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chap. IV and Difpojitions. 177 

ons of the Mind (For thefe are ufu- 
ally occafion'd by perpetual motions 
of Thought about ibme one Objeftj 
whether it be about ones felf in ex- 
cefles of PridC) or about another in 
thofe of Love^ or of Grief.} There- 
fore none are fo excufable as Men of 
much Care and Thought, or of great 
Bufincfs, for giving up their times of 
leifure to any Pleaiures or Diverfions 
that offend no Laws, nor hurt others 
or themfelves : And this feems the rea- 
fon, that, in all Civil Conftitutions^not 
only Honours, but Riches, are annex-> 
ed to the Charges of thofe who go- 
vern, and upon whom the Fublick 
Cares are meant to be devolved ^ not 
only, that they may not be diftrafted 
from thefe, by the Cares of their owrt 
Domeftick or Private Jnterefts > but, 
that by the help of Efteem, and of 
Riches, they may have thofe Pleafiires 
and Diverfions in their reach, which 
idle Men neither need nor deferve, 
but which are neceffary for the Re- 
frefhment^or Repair, of Spirits, exhauft- 
ed with Cares, and with Toilj and 
which ferve to fweeten and preferve 
thofe Lives that would otherwife wear 
outJ too faft, or grow too uneafie in the 
Service of ;Iie Publick. N The 

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1 y 8 - Of their People Chap. IV. 

The Two Charafters that are kft by 

the old Roman Writers, of the ancient 

Batavi or Holla7iders ^ are, 

^mmtHY (Fa6n 'y^^j. (-j^^y wcre both the 

Itr/e foTffimo^^^^ braveft among the German 
-virorum mxiiioy i^e- Nations, and the rnoft obfti- 
r/lir nt nate Lovers and Defenders of 
fibrHTTtpendos ui cor- their Liberty •, which made 

\t tSS' """ ^^^^^ exempted from all 
Tribute by the Romans^ who 
delirM only Soldiers of their Nation, 
to make up fome of their Auxiliary- 
Bands, as thev did in former 
gentium virtute fr^- Agcs of tholc Nations m Jta/y . 
cifm Batavi nonmuU that wcrc their Fricnds, and 
/:L'^Kt,^l2; AlUes. The laft Difpofition 
coimt. Tacit. deMor. feems to liavc coHtinu a , con- 
^^^' ilant and National among them, 

ever fince that time, and never to have 
more appeared, than in the Rife and 
Conftitutions of their prefent State, 
It does not feem to be fo of the Firft, 
or that the People in general can be, 
faid now to be Valiant ^ a Quality, of 
old, fo National among them, and 
which, by the feveral Wars of the 
Counts of Holland^ (^efpecially with the 
Frizons^^-din^h^ the defperate Defences 
made againft the Spaniards^ by this 
People, in the beginnings of their State, 


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chap* tV. and Vifpojttions. i j^ 

Oiould feem to have lafted long, and 
to have but Ltely decayed : That is, 
fince the whole Apphcation of their 
Natives has been tiirnM to Commerce 
and Trade, and the Vein of their Do- 
meftick Lives fo much to Parfimony, 
(by Circumftances which will be the 
Subje6t of another Chapter J ) andfince 
the main of all their Forces, and Body ^ 

of their Army has been composed, and 
continually fupply'd out of their Neigh- 

For Soldiers and Merchants are not 
found, by Experience, to be more in- 
compatible in their Abode, than the 
Difpofitions and Cuftoms feem to be 
different, that render a People fit for 
Trade, and for War. The Soldier thinks 
of a fhort Life, and a merry. The Tra- 
der thinks upon a long, and a pain- 
ful. One intends to make his For- 
tunes fuddenly by his Courage, by Vi- 
(Story and Spoil : The t'other flower, 
but furer, by Craft, by Treaty, and 
by Induftry. This makes the firft 
franc and generous, and throw away, 
upon his Pleafures, what has been got- 
itn in one Danger, and may either be 
loft, or repair'd, in the next. The 
other wary and frugal, and loath to 
N 2 part 

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I 8 o Of their People Chap. IV- 

part with in a Day, what he has been 
labouring, far a Year, and has no hopes 
to recover, but by the fame Faces of 
Diligence and Time. One aims only - 
to preferve what he has, as the Fruit 
of his Father's Fains •, or what he (hall 
get, as the Fruit of his own : T'other 
tfimks the price of a little Blood is 
more than of a great deal of Sweat-, 
^ and means to live upon other M n's 

Labours, and poflefs in an Hour, what 
they have been Years in acquiring : 
This makes one love to live under 
ftanch Orders and Laws ; while t^'othcr 
would have all depend upon Arbi- 
trary Power and Will. The Trader 
reckons upon growing Richer, and 
by his account Better, the longer he 
lives-, which makes him careful of his 
Health, and his Life, and fo apt to be 
orderly and temperate in his Diet j 
while the Soldier is Thoughtlefs, or 
Prodigal of both ^ and halving not 
his Meat ready at Hours, or when 
he has a Mind to it, eats full and 
greedily, whenever he gets it > and 
perhaps difference of Diet may make 
greater difference in Mens natural 
Courage, than is commonly thought 


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chap. IV. and Difpofitions. i ? i 

For Courage may proceed, in fome 
meafure, from the temper of Air, may- 
be formed by Difcipline, and acquired 
by Ufe, or infus'd by Opinion 3 but 
that which is more natural, and £b 
more National in fome Countries than 
in others, f:ems to arife from the Heat 
or Strength of Spirits about the Heart, 
which may a great deal depend upon 
the Meafures and the S,ubftance of the 
Food, Men are us'd to. This made a 
great Phyfician among us fay, He 
would make any Man a Coward with 
Six Weeks Dieting •, and Prince Mau- 
rice of Orange call for the Englijh that 
were newly come over, and had (as 
he faid) their own Beef in their BeU 
lies, for any bold and defperate Aftion. 
This may be one reafon, why the Gen- 
try, in all Places of the World, are bra- 
ver than the Peafantry, whofe Hearts 
are deprefTed, not only by Slavery, but 
by fliort and heartlefs Food, the Effeft 
of their Poverty. This is a Caufe, why 
the Yeomanry and Commonalty of 
England are generally braver than in 
other Countries, becaufe by the Plen- 
ty, and Conftitutions of the Kingdom, 
they are fo much caller in their Rents 
and their Taxes, and fare fo much 
N ^ better 

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1 8 z Of their People Chap. IV, 

better and fuller, than thofe, of their 
Rankj in any other Nation* Their 
chief, and, indeed, conftantFood, being 
of Flefli : And among all Creatures, 
both the Birds and the Beafts, we fhall 
ftill find thofe that feed upon Flefh, to 
be the fierce and the bold ^ and on the 
contrary, the fearful and faint-hearted 
to feed upon Grafs, and upon Plants. 
I think, there can be pretended but 
two lExceptions to this Rule, which 
are the Cock and the Horfe> whereas 
the Courage of the One, is noted no 
where but in England^ and there, only 
in certain Races: And for the Other^ 
all the Courage we commend in them, 
is, the want of Fear 5 and they are ob- 
ferv'd to grow much fiercer, whenever 
by Cuftom, or Neceflity, they have 
been us'd to Flefli. 

From all this may be inferred. That 
not only the long Difufe of Arms a- 
mong the Native Hollanders^ (efpecir 
ally at Land,) and making ufe of other 
Nations, chiefly in their Milice : But 
the Arts of Trade, as well as Peace, 
and their great Parfimony in Diet, and 
eating fo very little Flefli, ("which the 
common People feldom do above once 
a Week,) may have helped to debafe 


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chap. IV. and Difpojitions. / i 8 1 

much the ancient Valour of the Na- 
tion, at leaft, in the Occafions of Ser- 
vice at Land. Their Seamen are 
much better^ but not fo good as thofe 
o? Zealandy who are generally brave > 
which, I fuppofc;, comes by thefe ha- 
ving upon all occafions turned fo much 
more to Privateering, and Men of War ^ 
and thofe of Holland^ being generally 
employed in Trading and Merchant- 
Ships > while their Men of War arc 
Manned by Mariners of all Nations, 
who are very numerous among them, 
but efpecially, thofe of the Eafiland 
Coafts of Germany-, Suedes^ T>anesy and 

""Tis odd, that Veins of Courage 
fhould feem to run like Veins of good 
Earth in a Country, and yet not only 
thofe of the Province of Hainault 
among the Spanijh^ and of Gelderland 
among the United Trovinces^ are 
efteem'd better Soldiers than the reft 5 
But the Burghers of Valenciennes a- 
mong the Towns oi Flanders ^ and of 
Nitnmeguen among thofe of the Lower 
Geldery are obferv'd to be particularly 
brave. Btt there may be Firmnefs and 
Conftancy of Courage from Tradition, 
as well as of Belief: Nor methinks 
N 4 fhould 

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I 8 4 of their People Chap. 1 V» 

fiiould any Man know how to be a 
Coward, that is brought up with the 
Opinion, That all his Nation or City 
have ever been VaUant. 

I can fay nothing of what is ufually 
laid to their Charge, about their being 
Cruel, befides, what we have fo often 
heard of their barbarous Ufage to 
Ibmc of our Men in the Eaji-Indies^ 
and what we have fo lately feen of 
their Savage Murther of their T^enjio- 
ner de Wit \ a Perfon that deferv*d 
another Fate, and a better return from 
his Country, after eighteen Years fpent 
in their Miniftry^ without any Care of 
his Entertainments or Eafe, and a little 
of his Fortune. A Man of unweary'd 
Induftry, inflexible Conflancy, founds 
clear, and deep Underftanding, with un- 
tainted Integrity J fq that whenever he 
was blinded, it was by the Paflion he 
had for that which he efteem'd the 
Good and Intereft of his State, This 
Teftimony is juftly due to him from all 
that praftis'd him> and is the rnore wil- 
lingly paid, fince there can be as little 
Intereft tp flatter, as Honour to reproach, 
the dead. But this Aftion of that People 
may be attributed to the Misfortune 
pf their Country ^ and is fo pnlit:? 


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chap- IV. and Vifpofttions. i S 5 

the appearance of their Cuftoms and 
Difpofitions, living, as I faw them, un- 
der the Laws and Orders of a quiet 
and fettled State, and one muft confefs 
Mankind to be a very various Creature, 
and none to be known, that has not 
been feen in his Rage, as well as his 

They are generally not fo long liv'd, 
as in better Airs •, and begin to decay 
early, both Men and Women, efpecially 
at Amjlerdam : For, at the Hague^ ("which 
is their beft Air) I have known two 
cgnfiderable Men, a good deal above 
Seventy, and one of them in very good 
Senfe and Health : But this is not fo 
ufual as it is in England^ and in Spain. 
The Difeafes of the Climate feem to 
be chiefly the Gout and the Scurvy; 
but all hot and dry Summers bring 
fome that are infedious among them, 
efpecially into Amfierdam and Ley den : 
Thefe are ufual Fevers, and lye moft 
in the Head, and either kill fuddenly, 
or languifli long before they recover. 
Plagues are not fo frequent, at leaft 
not in a degree to be taken notice of, 
for all fupprefs the Talk of them as 
much as they can, and no Diftinftion is 
m^d? in the Regiftry of the dead> not 

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I 8^ Of their People Chap. IV. 

much in the Care and Attendance of 
the Sick : Whether from a behef of 
Predeftination, or elfe, a Preference of 
Trade, which is the Life of the Coun- 
try, before that of particular Men. 

Strangers among them are apt to com- 
plain of the Spleen, but thofe of the 
Country feldoift or never : Which I 
take to proceed from their being ever 
bulle, or eaiily fatisfy'd. For this feems 
to be the Dileafe of People that are 
idle^ or think themfelves but ill enter- 
tzin'dy and attribute every Fit of dull 
Humour, or Imaginatian> to a formal 
Dileafe^ which they have found this 
Name for^ whereas, fuch Fits are in- 
cident to all Men, at one time or other3^ 
from the fumes of Indigeftion, from the 
common Alterations of fome infenfibie 

degrees in 

* UBt titafepis: ^ cads moBiB Bmntnr Health and 

MumviTs vioiSy, ^ Jafiter bssmidi'Hi Au^tu^ Vi^or • ^ Or 

Vertwsttcr Jpecses amtmfruzSy. ^ pt£hra ta^^tss trom iOmC 

Ktmc inimy. alks ima WAhihs. 'umtsgs agebat chan^CS Or 

C(mdfmniy hms- tile allium- tmcmtu& m agri^ ^ , 

Jt IjU£ ^icitdeif ^ ^^antes ptfture €aruL approa ClieS 

virg. Georg. of change 

in Winds 
and Weather, which afFe£!: the finer Spi- 
rits of the Brain, before they grow fen» 
fible to other Parts > and are apt td al- 
-..,:, ter 

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chap. IV. and Difpojitions. 187 

ter the fliapes, or colours, of whatever 
is rcprefented to us by our Imaginati- 
ons, whilft we arc fo aflfefted. Yet this 
EfFeft is not fo flrong, but that bufinefs, 
or Intention of Thougiit, commonly 
either refifts, or diverts ic: And thole 
who undcrftand the motions of it, let it 
pafs, and return to themfelves. Butfuch 
as are idle, or know not from whence 
thefe Changes ari(e, and trouble their 
Heads with Notions, or Schemes oF ge- 
neral Happinefs> or Unhappincfs,in Life, 
upon every fuch Fit, begin Reflcdlions 
on the Condition of their Booies, their 
Souls, or their Fortunes y and (^as all 
things are then repreiented in the worft 
colours} they fill into melancholy appre- 
henfions of one or other, and fomctimes 
of them all : Thcfe make deep Impref- 
lion in their Minds, and are not ealily 
worn out by the natural Returns of 
good Humour, efpecially, if they are 
often interrupted by the contrary ^ as 
happens in fome particular Conftitu- 
tions, and more generally in uncertain 
Climates, efpecially, if improved by 
Accidents of ill Health, or ill Fortune. 
But this is a Difeafe too refin'd for this 
Country and People, who are well, 
when they are not ill > and pleas'd, 


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1 88 * of their People Chap. IV. 

when they are nor troubled j are con- 
tent>becaufe they think little of it 5 and 
feek their Happinefs in the common 
Eafe and Commodities of Life, or the 
encreafe of Riches 5 not amufing them- 
fclves with the more fpeculative Con- 
trivance of Paflion, or Refinements of 

To conclude this Chapter; Holland 
is a Country, where the Earth is better 
than the Air, and Profit more in re- 
qucft than Honour ^ where there is 
more Senfc, thm Witj more good Na- 
ture, than good Humour •, and more 
Wealth than Pleafure : Where a Man 
would chufe rather to Travel, than to 
Live> fhall find more things to ob- 
ferve, than defire^ and more Perfons to 
efteem, than to love. But the fame 
Qualities and Difpofitions do not va- 
lue a private Man and a State,' nor 
make a Converfation agreeable, and a 
Government great: Nor is it unlikely, 
that fome very great King might make 
but a very ordinary private Gentleman^ 
and fome very extraordinary Gentle- 
man, might be capable of making but 
a very mean Prince. 


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of their Religion. 

I Intend not here to fpeak of Religi- 
on at all as a Divine, but as a mere 
Secular Man, when I obferve theocca- 
fions that feem to have eftablifli'd it in 
the Forms, or with the Liberties, where- 
with it is now attended in the United 
Provinces. I believe the ReformM Re- 
ligion was introduced there, as well as 
in England^ and the many other Coun- 
tries where it is profefs'd, by the Ope- 
ration of Divine Will and Provi- 
dence > and by the fame, I believe the 
Roman Catholick was continued in 
France: Where it feem'd, by the con- 
fpiring of fo many Accidents in the 
beginning of Charles the Ninth's 
Reign, to be fo near a Change, And 
whoever doubts this, feems to queftion 
not only the Will, but the Power, of 
God. Nor will it at all derogate from 
the Honour of a Religion, to have 
been planted in a Country, by Secular 


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1 9P of their Religion. Chap. V. 

means, or Civil Revolutions, which 
have, long fince, fuccecded to thofe 
Miraculous Operations that made way 
for Chriftianity in the World. 'Tis 
enough, that God ^Imighty infufes Be- 
licl into the Hearts of Men, or elfe, or- 
dains it to grow out of Religious En- 
(juiries and Inftruftions -, and that 
where-ever the generahty of a Nation 
come by thefe means to be of a Belief, 
it IS by the force of this concurrence 
introduced into the Government, and 
becomes the eftablifh'd Religion of that 
Country. So was the RetormM Pro- 
feffion introduced into England:^ Scot- 
land^ Suedeny "Denmark^ Holland^ and 
many Parts of Germany. So was the 
Roman-Catholick reftor'd in France 
and in Flanders ; where, notwithftand- 
ing the great Concullions that were 
made in the Government by the Hu- 
gonots and the Gueufes-i yet they were 
never efteem'd, in either of thofe Coun- 
tries, to amount further than the Se- 
venth or Eighth part of the People. 
And whofoever defigns the change of 
Religion in a Country, or Govern- 
ment, by any other means than that of 
a general Converlion of the People, or 
the greateft part of them, defigns all 


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chap. V^ Of their Religion. tp\i 

the Mifchiefs to a Nation, that ufe to 
uflier injor attend^ the two greateftDi- 
ftempecs of a State, Civil War, or Ty- 
ranny -, which are Violence, Oppreffi- 
on, Gruelty, Rapine^ Intemperance, In- 
juftice, and, in fliort, the miferable Ef- 
fufion of Human Blood, and the Con- 
fufion of all Laws, Orders, and Vir- 
tues, among Men. 

Such Confequences as thefe, I doubt, 
are fomething more than the difputed 
Opinions of any Man, or any particu- 
lar AiTembly of Men, can be worth ^ 
fince the great and general End of all 
Religion, next to Mens Happinefs here- 
after, is their Happinefs here j as ap^ 
pears /by ^ the Commandments of God, 
being the beft and greateft Moral and 
CiviU as well as Divine, Precepts, that 
have been given to a Nation j and by 
the Rewards proposed to the Piety of 
the Jews ^ throughout the Old Tefta-- 
menr, which were the Blellings of this 
Life, as Health, length of Age, number 
of Children, Plenty, Peace, or Vi- 

Now the way to our future Happi- 
nefs, has been perpetually difputed 
throughout the World, and muft be left 
at laft, to the Impreflions made upon 


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19^ of their Religion. Chap* V- 

every Man's Belief, and Confcience^ ei- 
ther by natural) or fupernatural. Argu- 
ments and Means j which Impreflions 
Men may difguife or difTemble, but no 
Man can refitt. For Behef is no more 
in a Man's Power, than his Stature, or 
his Feature > and he that tells me, I 
muft change my Opinion for his, be- 
caufe 'tis the truer and the better, 
without other Arguments, that have to 
me the force of Conviftion, may as 
well tell me, I muft change my Grey 
Eyes, for others like his that are Black, 
becaufc thefe are lovelier, or more in 
efteem. He that tells me, I muft in- 
form my Self, has reafon, if 1 do it: 
not: But if I endeavour it all that I 
can> and perhaps, more than he ever 
did, and yet ftill differ from him ; 
and he, that, it may be, is idle, will 
have me ftudy on, and inform my felf 
better, and fo to the end of my Life ^ 
then 1 eafily underftand what he means 
by informing, which is, in fliort, that 
I muft do it, 'till I come to be of his 

If he, that, perhaps, purfues his Plea- 
sures or Interefts, as much, or more, 
than I do ; and allows me to have as 
good Sen% as he has in all other mat- 
ters 3 

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CJlap. V- Of their Religion^ 1 9 5 

ters, tells me, I (hould be of his Opi- 
nion, but that Paflion or Intereft 
blinds me > unlcfs he can convince me 
how, or where, this lics^ he is but 
where he was^ only pretends to know 
me better than I do my felf, who can- 
not imagine, why I fhould not have as 
much Care of my Soul, as he has of 

A Man that tells me, my Opinions are 
abfurd or ridiculous, impertinent or un- 
reafonable, becaufe they differ from 
His, feems to intend a Quarrel inftead 
of a Difpute> and calls me Fool, or 
Mad- man, with a httle more Circuni- 
ftance-, though, perhaps, Ipafs for one 
as well in my Senfes as he, as pertinent 
in Talk, and as prudent in Life : Yet 
thefc are the common Civilities, in Re- 
ligious Argument, of fufficient and 
conceited Men, who talk much of 
Right Reafon, and mean always their 
own 5 and make their private Imagi- 
nation the meafure of general Truth. 
But fuch Language determines all be- 
tween us, and the Difpute comes to 
end in three Words at laft, whick_it 
might as well have ended in at firft. 
That he is in the right, and I am in the 

O The 

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1^4 of their Religion. Chap.V. 

The other great End of Religion, 

which is our Happinefs here, has been 

generally agreed on by all Mankind, 

as appears in the Records of 

Fimt diverfA rei- ^\{ their Laws, as well' as all 
HbHs. qui. qmcmque thcir Rcligions, which come 
fiuxer'mt, c&tem fe- to be cftablilli'd by the Concur- 
Re^'"^'''''' ^^''•^' rence of Mens Cuftoms and 
Opinions > though in the lat- 
ter, that Concurrence may have been 
produced by Divine Imprellions or In- 
fpirations. For all agree in Teaching 
and Commanding, in Planting and Im- 
proving, not only thofe Moral Virtues^ 
which conduce to the felicity and tran- 
quility of every private Man's Life 5 
but alfo thofe Manners and Difpofitions 
that tend to the Peace, Order, and 
Safety of all Civil Societies and Go- 
vernments among Men, Nor could I 
ever underftand, how thofe, who call 
themfelves, and the World ufually callsj 
Religioiis Me7i^ come to put fo great 
weight upon thofe Points of Belief 
which Men never have agreed in, and 
fo little upon thofe of Virtue and Mo- 
rality, in which they have hardly ever 
difagreed. Nor, why a State (hould 
venture the Subveriion of their Peace, 
and thcir Order 51 which are certain 


Hosted by Google 

chap. V. Of their Religion. i pj 

Goods, and fo univerfally efteem'd, for 
the Propagation of uncertain or conte- 
fled Opinions. 

One of the great Caufes of the firfl 
Revolt in the Low-Countries y appeared 
to be, The Opprellion of MensConfci- 
€ncesy or Perfecution in their Liberties, 
their £fl:ates and their Lives, upon Pre- 
tence of Religion. And this at a time, 
when there feemM to be a confpiring 
Difpofition in mod Countries of Chri- 
fl:endom,to feek the Reformation of fome 
Abufes, grown in the Dodrine and Di- 
fciphne of the Church, either by the Ruft: 
of Time, by NegHgence, or by Human 
Inventions, Pallions and Interefts. The 
rigid Oppolition given at Rome to this 
general Humour, was followed by a de- 
fection of mighty Numbers in all thofe 
feveral Countries, who profeflcd to re- 
form themfclves,according to fuch Rules 
as they thought were neceflary for the 
Reformation of the Church. Thefe 
Perfonis, though they agreed in the 
main of difowning the Papal Power, 
and reducing Belief from the Autho- 
rity of Tradition to That of the Scrip- 
turcj yet they differed much among 
themfelves in other Circumftanccs, efpe- 
cially of Difcipline, according to 'the 
O 2 Perfu;*- 

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I p4 of their Religion. Chap. V. 

Perfuafions ^nd Imprefllons of the 
Leading Doftors in their feveral Coun« 
tries. So the Reformed of France be- 
came univerfally Cahinijis ^ but for 
thofe of Germany^ though they were 
generally Lutherans^ yet there was a 
great mixture both of Calvintfts and 
Anabaptifts among them. 

The firft Perfecutions of thefe Re- 
formed arofe in Germany^ in the time 
of Charles the Fifch5 and drove great 
]M umbers of them down into the Se- 
venteen Provinces, efpecially Holland 
and Brabant^ where the Privileges of 
the Cities were greater, and the Em- 
peror's Government was lefs fevere, as 
among the Subjefts of his own Native 
Countries. This was the occafion, that 
in the Year 15-66, whcn^ upon the firft 
Infurreftion in Flanders^ thofe of the 
Reformed Profeffion began to form 
ConfifiorieS) and levy Contributions 
among thcmfelves, for Support of their 
Common Caufe-, it was refolved, upon 
Confultation, among the Heads of themy 
that for declining all Differences among 
themftlves> at a time of common Exi- 
gence, The publick Profellion of their 
Party fliould be That of the Lntherans^ 
though v/ith Liberty and Indulgence to 


Hosted by Google 

chap. V. Of their Religion. " ipj 

thofe of different Opinions. By the 
Union of Utrecht -^ concluded in i f 75), 
Each of the Provinces was left to or- 
der the matter of Religion, as they 
thought fit and mofl: conducing to the 
welfare of their Province > with this 
Froviiion, that every Man fhould re- 
main free in his Rehgion, and none be 
examined or entrapped for that caufe^ 
according to the Pacification at Gant. 
But in the Year If 83, it was enaded by 
general Agreement, That the Evange- 
lical Rehgion fhould be only profeffed 
in all the Seven Provinces: Which came 
thereby to be the Eflablifht Religion of 
this State. 

The Reafons, w hich feem'd to induce 
them to this Settlement, were many, 
and of weight: As firft, becaufebythe 
Perfecutions arrived in France^ (where 
all the Reformed were Calvinijis) mul- 
titudes of People had retired out of 
that Kingdom into the Low-Countries : 
And by the great Commerce and con- 
tinual Intcrcourfe with Englanti^ where 
the Reformation agreed much with the 
Calvinijis in point of Dodrine, though 
more with the Lutherans in point of 
Difcipline, Thofe Opinions came to be 
credited and propagated more than any 
O 3 other 

Hosted by Google 

1 P 8 Of their Religion. Chap. V, 

other, among the People of thefe Pro- 
vinces, fo as the Numbers were grown 
to be greater far in the Cities of This 
than of any other Profeilion. Second- 
ly, the Succours and Supplies both of 
Men and Mony, by which the weak 
Beginnings of this Commonwealth were 
preferved and fortify'd, came chiefly 
from England^ from the Proteftants of 
France^ (^when their Affairs were fuc« 
cefsful} and from the Calviniji Princes 
of Germany^ who lay neareft, and were 
readied to relieve them. In the next 
place, becaufe thofe of this Profeflion 
feem*d the moft contrary and violent 
againft the Spaniards^ who made them^ 
felves Heads of the Roman Catholtcks 
thoughout Chriftendom, and the Ha- 
tred oi S fairly and their Dominion, was 
fo rooted in the Hearts of this People^ 
that it had Influence upon them in the 
very Choice of their Religion. And 
lafl:ly, becaufe, by this Profeflion, all 
Rights and Jurifdiftion of the Clergy 
or Hierarchy being fupprefled, there 
was no Ecclefiaftical Authority left to 
rife up and trouble or fetter the Civil 
Power-, and all the Goods and Pof- 
feflipns of Churches and Abbies were 
feized wholly into the hands of the State^i 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap- V. Of their Religion. i^c^ 

which made a great Encreafe of the pub- 
lick Revenue, a thing the moft ne- 
ceiTary for the Support of their Govern- 

There might perhaps be added one 
Rcafon more, which was particular to 
One of the Provinces: For, whereas in 
moft, if not all, other parts of Chriften- 
dom, the Clergy compofed one of the 
Three Eflates of the Country, and 
thereby (har*d with the Nobles and 
Commons in their Influences upon the 
Government, that Order never made 
any part of the E dates in Holland^ nor 
had any Vote in their Aflembly^, which 
conlifted only of the Npbles and the 
Cities > and this Province bearing always 
the greatefl Sway in the Councils of the 
Union, was moft enclined to the Settle- 
ment of that Profeflion which gave 
leaft Pretence of Power or Jurifdi&on 
to the Clergy, and fo agreed moft with 
their own ancient Conftitutions. 

Since this Eftabliftiment, as well as 
before^ the great care of this State has 
ever been, to favour no particular or 
curious Inquifition into the Faith or 
Religious Principles of any peaceable 
Man, who came to live under the Pro- 
teftion of their Laws, and to fuffer 
O 4, no 

Hosted by Google 

100 ' of their Religion. Chap.V. 

no Violence or Oppreflion upon any 
Man's Confcience, whofe Opinions 
broke not out into Expreflions or A6tir 
ons of ill Confequence to the State. A 
free Form of Government either mak- 
ing way for more Freedom in Religi- 
on y or elfe, having newly contended lb 
far themftives for Liberty in this Point, 
they thought it the more unreafonable 
for them to opprcfs others. Perhaps 
while they were fo threatened and en- 
dangered by Foreign Armies, they 
though it the more neceflary to pro- 
vide againft Difcontents within, which 
can never be dangerous, where they are 
not grounded or fathered upon Op- 
preflion in point either of ReHgion or 
Liberty. But m thofe two Gales, the 
Flame often proves moft violent in a 
State, the more 'tis fliut up, or the 
longer concealed. 

1 he Roman Catholick Religion was 
aione excepted from the common Pro- 
tection of their Laws, making Men 
fas the States believed} worfe Sub- 
jtdcs than the reft^ by the acknowledg- 
ment of a Foreign and Superior Ju- 
rifdidtion ^ for fo muft all Spiritual 
Power needs be, as grounded upon 
greater Hppes and Fe^r3 than any Gi- 


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Chap.V. Of their Religion. loi 

vilj at leaft, where ever the Perfuafions 
from Faith are as ftrong as thofe from 
Senfej of which there are fo many 
Teftimonies recorded by the Martyr- 
doms, Penancesj or Confcientious Re- 
ftraints and Severities, fuffer'd by infi- 
nite Perfons in all forts of Religions. 

Befides, this Profellion feemed ftill 
a Retainer of the Spanifh Government, 
which was then the great Patron of it 
in the World : Yet, fuch was the Care 
of this State to give all Men Eafe in 
this Point, who ask no more than to 
ferve God, and fave their own Souls, 
in their own Way and Forms j that 
what was not provided for by the 
Conftitutions of their Government, was 
fo, in a very great degree, by the Con- 
nivance of their Officers, who, upon 
certain conftant Payments from every 
Family, fuffer the Exercife of the Ro- 
man Catholick Religion in their feve- 
ral Jurifdiftions , as free and eafie, 
though not fo cheap, and fo avowed, 
as the reft. This, I fuppofe, has been 
the reafon, that though thofc of this 
Profellion are very numerous in the 
Country, among the Peafants, and 
conliderable in the Cities 5 and not ad- 
jnitted fo any Publick Charges ^ yet 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

tot of their Religion. Chap. V. 

they feem to be a found Piece of the 
State, and faft jointed in with the reft ^ 
and have neither given any Difturbance 
to the Government, nor expreft any In- 
clinations to a Change, or to any Fo- 
reign Power, either upon the former 
Wars with Sj^aiuy or the later Invafi- 
ons of the Bifhop of Munjier. 

Of all other Religions, every Man en- 
joys the free Exercife in his own Cham- 
ber, or his own Houfe, unqueftioned 
and unefpy'd : And if the Followers of 
anySe<3: grow fo numerous in any Place, 
that they affeft a Publick Congregati- 
on, and are content to purchafe a Place 
of Aflembly, to bear the Charge of a 
Faftor or Teacher, and to pay for this 
Liberty to the Publick > they go and 
propofe their Dcfi re to the Magiftrates 
of the Place where they refide, who in- 
form themfelves of their Opinions, and 
Manners of Wprfhip^ and if they find 
nothing in either, deftrudive to Civil 
Society, or prejudicial to the Confti- 
tutions of their State, and content 
themfelves with the Price that is offerM 
for the Purchafe of this Liberty, They 
eafily allow itj But with the conditi- 
on, That one or more Commiflioners 
fliall be appointed, who (hall have free 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. V. Of their Religion. 2.03 

AdmilTion at all their Meetings, fllall be 
both the Obfervcrs and WitnelTcs of 
all that is Afted or Preached among 
them, and whofe Teftimony fliall be 
received concerning any thing that 
paiTes there to the Prejudice of the 
State: In which cafe, the Laws and 
Executions are as fevere as againft any 
Civil Crimes. 

Thus the Jews have their allowed 
Synagogues in Amfierdam and Rotter- 
dayn : And in the firft, almoft all Se6ts, 
that are known among Chriftians> have 
their publick Meeting-places > and 
fome whofe Names are almoft worn out 
in all other Parts, as the Browniftsy 
Familijis^ and others : The Arminiansy 
though they make a great Name among 
them, by being rather the Diftinftion 
of a Party in the State, than a Se£t 
in the Church 5 yet are, in comparifon 
of others, but few in number, though 
confiderable by the Perfons, who are 
of the better Quality, the more learned 
and intelUgent Men, and many of them 
in the Government. The Anabaptifis 
are juft the contrary, very numerous, 
but in the lower Ranks pf People, Me- 
chanicks and Sea-men, and abound 
chiefly ip North-Holland. 


Hosted by Google 

20 4 0/ t^^^^ Religion. Chap. V, 

The Calvinijis make the Body of the 
People^ and are pofTefled of all the 
publick Churches in the Dominions 
of the State, as well as of the only 
Minillers or Paftors, who are maintain- 
ed by the Publick ^ But thefe have 
neither Lands, nor Tithes, nor any 
authorized Contributions from the Peo- 
ple, but certain Salaries from the State^ 
upon whom they wholly depend : And 
though they are often very bold in 
taxing and preaching publickly againft 
the Vices, and fometimes the innocent 
Entertainments, of Perlbns moft conli- 
derable in the Government, as well as 
of the Vulgar 3 yet they - are never 
heard to ccnfure or control the pub- 
lick Aftions or Refolutions of the 
State : They are, in general, through- 
out the Country, pailionace Friends 
to thelnterells of the Houfe o^ Orange i 
and, during che Intermifllon of that 
Authority, found ways of exprelTing 
their Aifedions to the Perfon and For- 
tunes of this Prince, without offend- 
ing the State, as it was then conftitu- 
tt^. They are fierce Enemies of the 
Armintan Party, whofe Principles were 
thought to lead them, in Barnevelfs 
time, towards a Conjundion, or atleaft 


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chap. V- of their Religion. 205 

Compliance, with the Spanijh Religion 
and Government , both which, the 
WoMi^o^ Orange y in the whole courfe 
of the War, endeavoured to make irre- 
concileable with thofe of the State. 

It is hardly to be imagined, how all 
the Violence and Sharpnefs, which ac- 
companies the Differences of Religion 
in other Countries, feems to be ap- 
peafed or fofcned here, by the general 
Freedom which all Men enjoy, either 
by Allowance or Connivance > nor, how 
Faftion and Ambition are thereby dif- 
abled to colour their IntereiTed arvd 
Seditious Defigns with the Pretences 
of Religion, which has coil the Chri- 
ftian World fo much Blood for thcfe 
laft Hundred and Fifty Years. No Man 
can here complain of Prefliire in his 
Confcience •, Of being forced to any 
publick Profefllon of his private 
Faith 'y Of being reftrain'd from his 
own manner of Worfliip in his Houfe, 
or obliged to any other abroad: And 
whoever asks more in point of Reli- 
gion> without the undifputed Evidence 
of a particular Miflion from Heaven^ 
may be juftly fufpeded, not to ask for 
God's fake, but for his own \ lince 
pretending to Sovereignty, inftead of 


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toS of their Religion. Chap. Vo 

Liberty^ in Opinion, is indeed pretend- 
ing the fame in Authority too> which 
conllfts chiefly in Opinion : And what 
Man, or Party foever, can gain the 
common and firm Belief, of being moft 
immediately infpired, inftruded, or fa- 
voured 6f God, will eafily obtain the 
Prerogative of being moft honoured and 
obey'd by Men. 

But in this Commonwealth, no Man 
having any reafon to complain of op- 
prefllori in Confcience j and no Man 
having Hopes, by advancing his Re- 
ligion, to form a Party, or break in 
upon the State, the Differences in O- 
pmion make none in Affeftions, and 
little in Converfation, where it ferves 
but for Entertainment and Variety, 
They argue without Intereft or Anger j 
they differ without Enmity or Scorn-, 
and they agree without Confederacy. 
Men live together, like Citizens of the 
Worlds affociated by the common Ties 
of Humanity, and by the Bonds of 
Peace, under the impartial Protection 
of indifferent Laws, with equal En-^ 
couragement of all Art and Induftry, 
and equal Freedom of Speculation and 
Enquiry > all Men enjoying their ima- 
ginary Excellencies and Acquilltions of 


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chap. V. of their Religion. 2,07 

Knowledge, with as much Safety as their 
more real Pofleflions and Improvements 
of Fortune. The Power of Religion a- 
mong kthem, where it is^ lies in every 
Man s Heart. The Appearance of it is 
but like a piece of Humanity, by which 
every one falls moft into the Company 
or Converfation of thofe,whafe Cuftoms 
and Humours, whofe Talk and Difpo- 
fitions he likes beft: And as in other 
Places, 'tis in every Man's choice with 
whom he will eat or lodge, with whom 
go to Market, or to Courts So it 
feems to be here, with whom he will 
Pray, or go to Church, or Aflbciate 
in the Service and Worfliip of God: 
Nor is any more Notice taken, or 
more Cenfure pafs'd, of what every 
one chufes in thefe Cafes, than in the 

I believe the Force of Commerce, 
Alliances, and Acquaintances, fpreading 
fo far as they do in fmall Circuits, 
(fuch as the Province of Holland^ may 
contribute much to make Converfation, 
and all the Offices of common Life, fo 
ealie, among fo different Opinions, of 
which fo many feveral Perfons are of- 
ten in every Man's Eye j and no Man 
checks or takes Offence at Faces, or 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

2 8 of their Religion. Chap. V. 

Cuftoms, or Ceremonies, he fc^s every 
day, as at thofe he hears of in Places 
far diftantj and perhaps by partial Re-^ 
lations, and comes to fee late in his 
Life, and after he has long been pof- 
fefs'd by Paffion or Prejudice againft 
them. However it is, Religion may 
pollibly do more good in other Placcsi 
but it does lefs hurt here : And where- 
ever the invifible EfFefts of it are the 
greateft and moft advantagious, I am 
fure the vifible are fo in this Country^ 
by the continual and undifturbed Civil 
Peace of their Government for fo long 
a courfe of Years j and by fo mighty 
an Encreafe of their People, wherein 
will appear to confift chiefly the vaft 
Growth of their Trade and Riches, 
and confequently the Strength and 
Greatnefs of their State, 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 



Of their Trade. 

^'Hp^IS evident to thofe^ who have 
Jl read the moft, and travdl'd far- 
thell, that no Country can be found 
either in this prefent Age, or upon Re- 
cord of any Story, where fo vaft a 
Trade has been managed, as in the nar- 
row compals of the Four Maritime 
Provinces of this Commonwealth : Nay, 
it is generally efleem'd, that they have 
more Shipping belongs to them, than 
there docs to all the reft of Europe. 
Yet they have no Native Commodi- 
ties towards the Buildings or Rigging of 
the fmalleft VefTeU their Flax, Hemp, 
Pitch, Wood, and Iron, coming all from 
abroad, as Wool does for cloathing 
their Men, and Corn for feeding them. 
Nor do I know any thmg properly of 
their own growth, that is conhderable 
either for their own neceflary ufe, or 
for Traffick with their Neighbours, 
befides Butter, Cheefe, and Karthen- 
P Wares, 

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XX c of their Trade. Chap^VL 

Wares. For Havens, they have not 
any good upon their whole Coaft : 
The bed are Heiverjluysy which has no 
Trade at alU ^nd FluJJingue^ which has 
little, in comparifon of other Towns m 
Holland: Y>wt Amlierdam^t\yiK, triumphs 
in the Spoils of Lisbon and Antwerp^ 
(which before engrofs'd the greateft 
Trade of Europe and the Indies^ {^^vc^.% 
to be the moft incommodious Haven 
they have, being feated upon fo (hal- 
low Waters, that ordinary Siiips cannot 
come up to it without the Advantage 
of Tides s nor great ones without 
unlading. The Entrance of the Tejfely 
and Paflage over the Zudder-Sea^ is 
more dangerous than a Voyage from 
thence to Spain^ lyi^g ^1^ ^"^ blind 
and narrow Channels > lb that it eafily 
appears, that 'tis not an Haven that 
draws Trade, biit Trade that fills an 
Haven, and brings it in vogue. Nor 
has Holland ^xo^n rich by any Native 
Commodities, but by force of Induftry^ 
by Improvement and Manufaftyre of 
all Foreign Growths > by being the 
general Magazine of Europe^ and fur- 
niOiing all Parts with whatever the 
Market wants or invites 5 and by their 
Sea-men, being, a^^they have properly 


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chap. VL Of their Trade. 

been call'd, the common Carriers of 
the World. 

Since the Ground of Trade cannot 
be deduc'd from Havens, or Native 
Commodities, (zs may well be conclud- 
ed from the furvey oi Holland^ which 
has the leaft and the worft> and of 
Ireland^ which has the mod and the 
bell, of both^} it were not amifs to 
confider, from what other fource ic 
may be more naturally and certainly 
derived : For if we talk of Induftiy, 
we are (till as much to feek, what ic 
is that makes People induftrious in 
one Country, and idle in another. I 
conceive the true Original and Ground 
of Trade, to be, great multitude of 
People crowded into fmall compafs of 
Land, whereby all things neceifary to 
Life become dear, and all Men, who 
have Pofleflions, arc induced to Par- 
iimony > but thofe who have none, 
are forc'd to Induftry and Labour, or 
elfc to Want. Bodies that are vigorous, 
fall to Labour j fuch as are not, fupply 
that Defeft by fome fort of Inventions 
or Ingenuity. Thefe Cuftoms arife firft 
from Neceillty, but encreafe by Imita- 
tion, and grow in time to be habitual 
in a Country J and where-ever they are 
Pi fo, 

2.1 r 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 


of their Trade. Chap. VL 

fo, if it lyes upon the Sea, they natu- 
rally breakout into Trade, both becaufe, 
whatever they want of their own, that 
is neccflary to fo many Mens Lives,muft 
be fupply*ci from abroad ^ and becaufe, 
by the multitude of People, and fmal- 
ncfs of Country, Land grows fo dear> 
that the Improvement of Mony, that 
way, is intonfiderable, and fo turns to 
Sea, where the greatnefs of the Profit 
makes amends for the Venture. 

This cannot be better illuftratcd, 
than by its contrary, which appears 
no where more than in Ireland ^y where, 
by the largcncfs and plenty of the 
Food, and fcarcity of People, all things 
neceflary to Life are fo cheap, that an 
induftrious Man^by Two Days Labour, 
may gain enough to feed him the reft 
of the Week^ which I take to be a 
very plain Ground of the Lazinefs at- 
tributed to the People: For Men na- 
turally prefer Eafe before Labour, and 
will not take pains, if they can live 
idle^ though, when, by neccfllty, they 
have been inured to it, they cannot 
leave it, being grown a cuftom necef- 
fary to their Health, and to their very 
Entcrtailiment : Nor perhaps is the 
change harder, from conftant Eafe to 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. VL Of their Trade. % 1 3 

Labour, than from conftant Labour to 

This Account of the Original of 
Trade, agrees with the Experience of 
all Ages, and with the Conftitutions 
of all Places, where it has moft flou- 
ridi'd in the World, as Tyre^ Carthage^ 
Athens^ Sjracufe^ Agrigentumt Rhodes^ 
Venice -i Holland -, and will be fo obvi- 
ous to every Man, that knows and con- 
liders the Situation, the Extent, and 
the Nature, of all thofe Countries, that 
it will need no Enlargement upon the 

By thefe Examples, which are all of 
Commonwealths, and, by the Decay, or 
Diffplution, of Trade, in the Six Firll, 
when they came to be conquered, or 
fubje£ted to Arbitrary Dominions, it 
might be concluded, that there is 
fomething, in that form of Government^ 
proper and natural to Trade, in a more 
peculiar manner. But the height it ar- 
riv'd^to at Bruges and Antwerp^ under 
their Princes, for Four or Five Defcents 
of the Houfe o^ Burgundfy and Two of 
Anjlria^ (hews, it may thrive under 
good Princes and Legal Monarchies^ as 
well as under Free StateSo Under Ar- 
bitrary and Tyrannical Fowcr3 it muft 
P3 of 

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ii4 Of their Trade. Chap.VL 

of neceflity decay and difTolve, be- 
caufe this empties a Country of Peo- 
ple, whereas the others fill it j this 
extinguifhes Induftry, whilft Men are 
in doubt of enjoying themfelves what 
they get, or leav^ing it to their Chil- 
dren *, the others encourage it, by fe- 
curing Men of both: One tills a Coun- 
try with Soldiers, and the other with 
Merchants •, who were never yet 
known to live well together, bccaufe 
they cannot truft one another: And as 
Trade cannot live without mutual truft 
among private Men j fo it cannot grow 
or thrive, to any great degree, without 
a Confidence both of pubhck and private 
Safety, and confequently a Truft in the 
Government, from an Opinion of its 
Strength, Wifdom, and Juftice> which 
muft be grounded either upon the Per- 
fonal Virtues and Qualities of a Prince, 
or elfe upon4:he Conftitutions and Or- 
ders of a State. 

It appears to every Man's Eye who 
hath traveird Holland^ and obferv'd 
the number and vicinity of their great 
and populous Towns and Villages, 
with the prodigious Improvement of 
almoft every Ipot of Ground in the 
Country^ and the great Multitudes 


Hosted by CiOOQIC 

chap. VI. Of their Trade. % i j 

conftantly employed in their Shipping 
abroad, and their Boars at home. That 
no other known Country in the 
World, of the fame exrent, holds any 
proportion with this in numbers of 
People ; and if that be the great 
Foundation of Trade, the beft ^SiCcownt 
that can be given of theirs, will be 
by conlidermg the Caufes and Acci- 
dents, that have ferv'd to force or in- 
vite fo vaft a confluence of People in- 
to their Country. In the firft rank 
may be placed, the Civil Wars, Cala- 
mities, Perfecutions, Oppreilions, or 
Difcontents, that have been fo fatal to 
m0ft of their Neighbours, for fome 
time before as well as iince their State 

The Perfecutions for matter of Re- 
hgion, in Germany under Charles the 
Fifth, in France under* Henry the Se- 
cond, and in England under Queen 
Marjy forcM great numbers of People 
out of all thofe Countries, to Ihelter 
themfelves in the feveral Towns of the 
Seventeen Provinces, where the ancient 
Liberties of the Country, and Privi- 
ledges of the Cities, had been invio- 
late under fo long a Succefllon of Prin- 
ces, and gave Protcftion to tbcfe op- 
P 4, preffed 

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zi6 Of their Trade. Chap. VI 

prefTed Strangers^who filPd their Cities 
both with People and Trade, and raised 
Antwerp to fuch an height and rc- 
nown, as continuM 'till the Duke of 
Alva's Arrival in the Lo^jj -Countries, 
The Fright of this Man, and the Or- 
ders he brought, and Arms to exe- 
cute them, began to fcatter the Flock 
of People that for fome time had been 
nefted there > fo as^in very few Months, 
above a Hundred Thoufind Families 
remov^'d out of the Country. But 
when the Seven Provinces United, and 
began to defend themfelves with Sue- 
cefs under the Conduft of the Prince 
of Orange:, and the Countenance of 
England and France-^ and the Perfecu- 
lions for Religion began to grow (harp 
in the Spanijh Provinces, all the Profef- 
fors of the- Reformed Religion, and 
Haters of the Spanifh Dominion, retir'd 
into the (Irong Cities of this Common- 
wealth, and gave the fame Date to the 
growth of Trade there, and the Decay 
of it at Antwerp, 

The long Civil Wars, at firft of 
France^ then of Germany-^ and laftly of 
England^ ferved to encreafe the fwarm 
in this Country, not only by fiich as 
V/cre pcrfccuted at home, but great 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. VL Of their Trade. z 1 7 

numbers of peaceable Men, who came 
here to feek for Quiet in their Lives, 
and Safety in their PofTeflions or 
Trades j like thofe Birds that upon 
the approach of a rough Winter- fea- 
fon, leave the Countries where they were 
born and bred^ fly away to fome kinder 
and fofter Climate, and never return 
'till the Frofts are paft, and the Winds 
are laid at home. 

The Invitation thefe People had, to 
fix rather in Holland than in many bet- 
ter Countries, feems to have been, at 
firft, the great Strength of their Towns, 
which by their Maritime Situation, 
and the low Flatnefs of their Country, 
can with their Sluces overflow all the 
Ground about them at fuch diftances, 
as to become inacceflible to any Land- 
Forces. And this natural Strength has 
been improved, efpecially 2ZAmJierdamy 
by all the Art and Expence that could 
any ways contribute towards the De- 
fence of the Place. 

Next, was the Conftitution of their 
Government, by which, neither the 
States-General, nor the Prince, have any 
Power to invade any Man's Perfon or 
Property within the Precinfts of their 
Cities. Npr could it be fear'd that the 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

2 1 8 of their Trade. Chap. VI. 

Senate of any Town fliould confpire to 
any fuch violence •, nor if they didy 
could they poflibly execute it, having 
no Soldiers in their Payjand the Burghers 
only being employed in the Defence of 
their Towns, and Execution of all Civil 
Juftice among them. 

Thefe Circumftanccs gave fo great a 
Credit to the Bank oi Amfterdams and 
that was another Invitation for People 
to come, and lodge here what part of 
their Mony they could tranfport, and 
knew no way of fecuring at home. 
Nor did thofe People only lodge Mo- 
nies here, who came over inco the 
Country > but many more, who never 
left their own : Though they provided 
for a Retreat, or agamft a Storm, and ^ 
thought no place fo fecure as this, nor 
from whence they might fo eafily draw 
their Mony into any Parts of the 

Another Circumftance, was, the ge- 
neral Liberty and Eafe, not only in 
point of Confcience, but all others 
that ferve to the Commodioufnefs and 
Quiet of Life ; every Man following 
his own Way, minding his own Buii- 
nefs, and little enquiring into other 
Mens J whichj I fuppofe, happen 'd by 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. VI. of their Trade. 1 1 9 

fo great a Concourfe of People of fe- 
veral Nations, different Religions and 
CuftomSjasleftnoihing ftrange or new^ 
and by the general Humour, bent all 
upon Induftry, whereas Curioiity is 
only proper to idle Men. 

Befides, it has ever been the great 
Principle of their State, running through 
all their Provinces and Cities, even with 
Emulation^ to make their Country the 
common Refuge of all mifcrable Men ^ 
from whofe Protedion, hardly any Al- 
liance, Treaties, or Interefts, have e- 
ver been able to divert or remove them. 
So as, during the great Dependance 
this S^te had upon France^ in the time 
of Hmry the Fourth, all the Perfons dif- 
graced at that Court or banifh'd that 
Country, made this their common Re- 
treat s nor could the State ever be 
prcvaird with, by any Inflances of the 
French Ambaffadors^to refufe them the 
ufe and liberty of common Life and Air, 
under the Protection of their Govern- 

This firmnefs in the State, has been 
one of the Circumftances, that has in- 
vited fo many unhappy Men out of all 
their Neighbourhood, and indeed from 
moft parts ol Europe^ to flielter thcm- 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

2 1 o Of their Trade. Chap. VL 

felves from the Blows of Juftice, or of 
Fortune. Nor indeed does any Coun- 
try feem fo proper to be made ufe of 
upon fuch Occafions, not only in refpedt 
of Safety, but as a Place that holds fo 
conftant and eafie Correfpondencies 
wath all Parts of the World, and whi- 
ther any Man may draw whatever Mo- 
ny he has at his Difpofal in any other 
Place 5 where neither Riches expofe 
Men to Danger, nor Poverty to Con- 
tempt : But on the contrary, where 
Parfimony is honourable, whether it be 
neceffary or no> and he that is forced 
by his Fortune to live low, may here 
alone live ift Fafhion, and upon equal 
Terms (in appearance abroad} with the 
chiefefl: of their Minifters, and richeft 
of their Merchants : Nor is it eafily 
imagin'dj how great an EfFe£t this Con- 
flitution among them, may, in cpurfe 
of time, have had upon the encreaft 
both of their People and their Trade. 

As the two firft Invitations of Peo- 
ple into this Country, were the 
Streng h of their Towns, and Nature 
of their Government J fo, two others 
have grown with the courfe of Time^ 
and progrefs of their Riches and 
Power. One is the Reputation of their 


Hosted by Google 

chap. VL Of their Trade. i z i 

Government, ariiing from the Obfer*. 
vation of the Succels of their Arms, the 
Prudence of their Negotiations, the 
Steadinels of their Counfels, the Con-- 
ftancy of their Peace and Quiet at home, 
and the Confideration they hereby arri- 
ved at among the Princes and States of 
Chriftendom. From all thefe, Men 
grew to a general Opinion of the Wif- 
dom and Conduft of their State 3 and 
of its being eftablifti'd upon Foundations, 
that could not be (haken by any com-- 
mon Accidents, nor confcqucntly in 
danger cf any great or fudden Revo- 
lutions-, and this is a mighty Induce- 
ment to induftrious People to come and 
inhabit a Country, who feek not only 
fafety under Laws from Juftice ana 
Opprcilion, but likewife under the 
Strength and good Conduit of a State, 
from the Violence of Foreign Invafions, 
or of Civil Commotions. 

The other, is, the great Beauty of 
their Country (forced m time, and by 
the Improvements of Induliry,infpighc 
of Nature,) which draws every Day 
fuch Numbers of curious and idle Per- 
fons to fee their Provinces, though not 
to inhabit them. And indeed their 
Country is a much better Miftrefs 


Hosted by Google 


of their Trade. Chap. VL 

than a Wife -, and where few Perfons 
who are wdl at home, would be content 
to hve-, but where none that have Time 
and Mony to fpare, would not for 
once be willing to travel > and as Eng- 
land (hcwSy in the beauty of the Coun- 
try , what Nature can arrive at •, fo 
does Holland^ in the number, greatnefs, 
and beauty of their Towns, whatever 
Art can bring to pafs. But thefe and 
many other matters of Speculation a- 
mong them, filHng the Obfervations of 
all common Travellers, fliall make no 
part of mine, whofe defign is rather to 
difcover the Caufes of their Trade and 
Riches, than to relate the Effefts. 

Yet it may be' noted hereupon, as a 
piece of Wifdom in any Kingdom or 
State, by the Magnificence of Courts, 
or of Publick Structures ^ by encou- 
raging Beauty in private Buildings, and 
the Adornment of Towiis with plea- 
fant and regular Plantations of Trees ^ 
by the Celebration of fome Noble Fe- 
Ilivals or Solemnities ^ by the Inftitu- 
tion cvf fome great Marts or Fairs > and 
by the Contrivance of any extraordi- 
nary and renown'd Spe£tacles, to in- 
vite and occafion, as much and as of- 
ten as can be, the concourfe of bufie 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

Chap.VL of their Trade. Z13 

or idle People from the neighbouring 
or remoter Nations^ whofe very Paf- 
fage and Intercourfe is a great encreafe 
of Wealth and of Trade, and a fecret 
Incentive of People to inhabit a Coun- 
try, where Men may meet with equal 
Advantagesjand more Entertainments of 
Life, than in other places. Such were 
the Oympick and other Games among 
the Griecians 5 fuch the Triumphs, 
Trophies, and Secular Plays of old 
Rome^ as well as the Speftacles exhi- 
bited afterwards by the Emperors, 
with fuch ftupendious Effeds of Art 
and Expence, for courting or enter- 
taining the People ^ fuch the Jubi- 
lees o^Nc^ Rome} the Jufts and Tour- 
naments formerly ufed in moft of the 
Courts of Chriftendom} the FeftivaPs 
of the more celebrated Orders of 
Knighthood •, and in particular Towns, 
the Carnavals and Fairs > the KirmiQies, 
which run through all the Cities of the 
Netherlands^znd in fome of them, with 
a great deal of Pageantry, as well as 
Traffick , being equall Baits of Pleafure 
and of Gain. 

Having thus difcover'd, what has 
laid the great Foundations of their 
Trade, by the multitude of the People, 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

tLi4 of their Trade. Chap. VL 

which has planted and habituated In-- 
duftry among them, and^ by that, all 
forts of Manufafture^ as well as Par* 
iimony, and thereby general Wealth : 
I (hall enumerate very briefly, fome 
other Circumftances, that feem, next 
to thefe, the chief Advancers and En- 
couragers of Trade in their Coun- 

Low Intereft, and dearnefs of Land, 
are EfFefts of the Multitude of People^ 
and caufe of fo much Mony to lye ready 
for all Projeds, by which gain may be 
cxpefted, as the cutting of Canals, ma- 
king Bridges and Cawfies, levelling 
Downs, and draining Marflies, befides 
all new Effays at Foreign Trade, which 
are proposed with any probability of 

The uTe of their Banks, which fecures 
Mony, and makes all Payments eafie, 
2nd Trade quick. 

The Sale by Regiftry, which was 
introduced here and in Flanders in the 
time of Charles the Fifth, and makes 
all Purchafcs fafe. 

The Severity of JuiTice, not only 
agjinft all Thefts, but all Cheats, and 
Counterfeits of any Publick Bills, 
(which is capital among them,} and 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

Cliap. VL Of their Trade. %z<; 

even againft all common Beggars, who 
are difpos'd of either into Work-hou- 
ksy or Hofpitals, as they are able or 
Hnable to labour. 

The Convoys of Merchant-Fleets in- 
to all parts, even in time of Peace, but 
efpecially into the Streights ; which 
give their Trade Security againft many 
uncxpefted Accidents, and their Nati- 
on Credit abroad, and breeds up Sea- 
men for their Ships o^ War: 
. The Lownefs of their Cuftoms, and 
Eafinefs of paying them, which^ witl^ 
the Freedom of their Ports, invite both 
Strangers and Natives to bring Com- 
modicies hither, not only as to a Mar- 
ket, but as to a Magazine, where they 
lodge ^till they are invited abroad to o» 
ther and better Markets, 

Order and Exadfnefs in managing 
their Trade, which brings thrir Com- 
modities in Credit abroad. This was 
firft introduced by fevere Laws and Pe=. 
ijalries, but is tmco:. grown into Cu- 
ftom. Thus there have been above 
Thirty feveral Placarts about the man- 
ner of curing, picklingv and barrelling 
Herrings. Thus all Arms made at U- 
trfcht:, are forfeited, if ibid without 
Mark, or marked without Trial And I 
Q^ ©bfer- 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

^i6 of their Trade. Chap. VL 

obferved in their Indian-HouCcy that all 
the Pieces of Scarlet, which are fent in: 
great quantities to thofe Parts, are mark- 
ed with the Eng/ijb Armsy and Infcrip- 
tions in Englijh ^ by which they main- 
tain the Credit gained to that Commo- 
dity, by our former Trade to Parts, 
where ^tis now loft or decayed. 

The Government managed either by 
Men that trade, or whofe Families have 
rifen by it, or who have themfelves fome 
Intereft going in other Mens Traffick, 
or who are born and bred in Towns, 
the Soul and Being whereof confifts 
wholly in Trade, which makes fure of 
all favour, thatj from time to time^ 
grows neceffary, and can be given it 
by the Government. 

The Cuftom of every Town's affeft- 
ing fome particular Commerce or Sta- 
ple, valuing it fclf thereupon, and fo 
improving it to the greateft height 3 as 
Flajjingiie-, by that of the JVeJi - Indies ; 
Middlebtirghy oiFrenchV^mts-y Terveery 
by the Scouh Staple ^ T>ort^ by the 
EngliJhStA^Xc and Rhemjh Wines •, Rot^ 
ierdam^ by the Englijh and Scotch Trade 
at large, and h^FrenchWmtSy Leyderii 
by the Manufafture of all forts of 
Stuffs, Silk, Hair, Gold and Silver 5 

Hosted by Google 

Chap.VL Of their "n^adc. ii; 

Haerlemy by Linnen, Mixt-StuflFi, and 
Flowers J "iyelf^ by Beer and Dutch- 
Purcelanej Surdam^ by the Built of 
Ships > Enchujfen and Mazlandjluys^ 
by Herring- Fifhing; Friezldndy by the 
Greenland Trade ^ and Amflerdamy by 
that of the Eaji-Indies^ Spain^ and the 

The great Application of the whole 
Province to the Fifliing-Trade, upon 
the Coafts of England and Scotland^ 
which employs an incredible number of 
Ships and Sea-men, and fupplies moft 
of the Southern Parts oi Europe with a 
rich atid neceflary Commodity. 

The laft, I mall mention, is, the 
mighty Advance they have made to- 
wards engrofling the whole Commerce 
of the EaJl'Indiesy by their Succelles 
againft the ^ortuguefeSy and by their 
many Wars and Viftorics agiinft the 
Natives, whereby they have forced 
them to Treaties of Commerce, ex- 
clufive to all other Nations, and to th€ 
Admiflion of Forts to be built upon 
Streights and Paflcs, that command the 
Entrances into the Traiffick of fuch 
Places. This has been atchieved by 
the multitude of their People and Ma- 
riners, that has been able to furniih 
0^2 every 

Hosted by Google 

2.x8 of their Trade. Chap. VL 

every Year fo many great Ships for 
fuch Voyages, and to lupply the lofs of 
fo many Lives, as the Changes of Cli- 
mate have coft, before they learnt the 
method of living' in them : By the vaft- 
nefs of the Stock that has been turned 
wholly to that Trade •, and by the 
Condud and application of the Ea/i- 
India Company, who have managed it 
like a Common-wealth, rather than a 
Trade, and thereby rais'd a State in 
the Indies^ govern d indeed by the 
Orders of the Company, but other- 
wife appearing to thofe Nations like a 
Sovereign State, making War and Peace 
with their greateft: Kings, and able to 
bring to Sea Forty or Fifty Men of 
Warj and Thirty Thoufand Men at Land, 
by the modefteft Computations. The 
Srock of this Trade, befides what it 
turns to in France y Spain^ Italy^ the 
Stretghts^ and Germany ^ makes them fo 
great Mailers in the Trade of the Nor- 
thern Parts of Europe^ as Mufconjy^ To- 
land^ Tomer anidy and all the Balticky 
where the Spices, that are an Indian 
Drug, and European Luxury, command 
all the Commodities of thofe Coun- 
tries, which are fo neceflary to Life, as 
then' Corn \ and to Navigation, as 


Hosted by VjOOQ IC 

chap, VI. Of their Trade. 125) 

Hemp> Pitch 3 Mafts, Planks, and 

Thus the Trade of this Country is 
difcover'd to be no EfFeft of common 
Contrivances, of natural Difpofitions or 
Situation, or of trivial Accidents^ but 
of a great Concurrence of Circum- 
ftances, a long courfe of Time, force 
of Orders and Method, which never 
before met in the World to fuch a de- 
gree, or with fo prodigious a Succefs, 
and perhaps never will again. Having 
grown, (to fum up all} from the Si- 
tuation of their Country, extended 
upon the Sea^ divided by Two fuch 
Rivers as the Rhine and the Mofe^ 
with the Vicinity of the EmSy IVefer^ 
and Elve} From the Confluence of 
People out of Flanders^ England y 
France^ and Germany^ invited by the 
Strength of their Towns, and by the 
Conftitutions and Credit of their Go- 
vernment > By the Liberty of Confci- 
ence, and Security of Life and Goods, 
(^fubjefted only to conftant Laws 5} 
From general Induftry and Parlimo^y^ 
occafion'd by the Multitude of People^ 
and Smalnefs of Country j From 
cheapnefs and eafinefs of Carriage by 
convenience of Cahals % From low Ul>^ 
0^3 and 

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^j© of their Trade. Chap.VL 

and dcarnefs of Land, which turn Mo- 
ney to Trade^ the Inftitution of Banks j 
Sale by Rcgiftry •, Care of Convoys ^ 
Smalnefs of Cuftoms y Freedom of 
Forts 5 Order in Trade ^ Intereft of 
Perfons in the Government > particular 
Traffick affected to particular Places^ 
Application to the Fifliery 3 and Acqui- 
litions in the Eaji-Indies. 

It is no confVant Rule, That Trade^ 
makes Riches -, for there may be a 
Trade that impoverifhes a Nation : As 
it is not going often to Market, that 
enriches the Gpuntry-man 5 but, on 
the contrary, if, every time he comes 
there, he buys to a greater value than 
he fells, he grows the poorer, the oft- 
lier he goes: But the only and cer- 
tain Scale of Riches, arifing from Trade 
in a Nation, is the Proportion of what 
is exported for the Confumption of 
others, to what is imported for their 

The true ground of this Proportion 
lies in the general Induftry and Parfi- 
mony of a People, or in the contrary 
of both, Induftry encreafes the Na- 
tive Commodity, either in the Produft 
of the Soil, or the Manufactures of 
the Country, which raifes the Stock 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. VI. Of their Trade. 151 

for Exportation. Parfimony leiTens the 
confumption of their own> as well as 
of Foreign, Commodities > and not 
only abates the Importation by the iaft, 
but encreafes the Exportation by the 
iirftj for, of all Native Commodities, 
the lefs is confumed m a Country^ 
the more is exported abroad j there 
being no Commodity, but, ,at one Price 
or other, will find a Market, which 
they will be Mafters of, who can af- 
ford it cheapeft : Such are always the 
moft induftnous and parfimonious Peo- 
ple, who can thrive by Prices, upon 
which the Lazy and pxpenfive cannot 

The vulgar Miftake, That Importa» 
tion of Foreign Wares, if purchafed 
abroad with Native Commodities, and 
not with Mony, does not make a Na- 
tion pooref, is but what every Man^ 
thatgiveshimfelf Leifurc to think, muft 
immediately reftifie, by finding out^ 
that, upon the end of an Account be- 
tween a Nation, and all they deal 
with abroad, whatever the Exportation 
wants in value, to balance that of the 
Importation, muft of necellity be made 
up with ready Mony, 

By this we find out the FoyndatioB 
CL4. .#f 

Hosted by Google 

132. of their Trade. Chap. VL 

of the Riches of Holland^ as of their 
Trade by the Circumftances already re- 
hearfed. For never any Country tra- 
ded (o much, and confumed fo httle: 
They buy infinitely, but 'tis to fell 
again, either upon Improvement of the 
Commodity, or at a better Market, 
They are the great Mafters of the In- 
dian Spices, and of the Terfian Silks > 
but wear plain Woollen, and feed up- 
on their own Fi(h and Roots. Nay, 
they fell the fineft of their own Cloth 
to France^ and buy coarfe out of Eng- 
land for their own Wear. They fend 
abroad the beft of their own Butter, 
into all parts, and buy the cheapeft out 
of Ireland^ or the North of England^ 
for their own ufe. In fhort, they fur- 
nilh infinite Luxury, which they never 
praftife 3 and traflick in Pleafures, which 
they never tafte. 

The Gentlemen and Officers of the 
Army change their Cloaths and their 
Modes like their Neighbours. But a^ 
mong the whole body of the Civil 
Magiftrates, the Merchants, the rich 
Traders, and Citizens in general, the 
pafiiions cqntinue ftill the fame. And 
others, as conilant among the Sea-meu 
^ind Poors : So that Men leave oif 
' iheir^ 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 

Chap. VI. of their Trade. a 3 5 

their Clothes> only becaufe they are 
worn out, and not becaufe they are out 
of Fafhion. 

Their great Foreign Confumption is 
French VJinc and Brandy-, but that may 
be allowed them, as the only Reward . 
they enjoy of all their Pains^ and as 
that alonC) which makes them rich and 
happy in their voluntary Poverty, who 
would otherwife feem poor and wr.tch- 
ed in their real Wealth. Befides, what 
they fpend in Wine, they fave in Corn 
to make other Drinks,^ which is bought 
from Foreign Parts. And upon a prel- 
fure of their Affairs, we fee now for 
Two Years together, they have deny'd 
themfclves even this Comfort, among 
all their Sorrows, and made' up in pai- 
live Fortitude, whatever they have want- 
ed in the aftive. 

Thus it happens, that much going 
conftantly out, either in Commodity^ 
or in the Labour of Sea- faring- men ; 
and little coming in to be con fumed 
at home^ the reft returns in Coin^ 
and fills the Country to that degree, 
that more Silver is feen in Holland^ 
among the common Hands and Furfes5 
than Brafs either in Spam or inFrarice ^ 
phough one be (o rich in the bell 


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^ 3 4 Of their Trade. Chap. VL 

Native Commodities, and the other 
drain all the Treafuries of the Wefi-^ 

By all this Account of their Trade 
and Riches, it will appear. That fome 
of our Maxims are not fo certain, as 
they are current, in our common Po- 
hticks. As firil, That Example and 
Encouragement of Excefs and Luxury, 
if employed in the Confumption of 
Native Commodities, is of Advantage 
to Trade: It may be fo to that which 
impoveriOies, but is not to that which 
enriches a Country •, and is indeed 
\tk prejudicial, if it lye in Native, 
than in Foreign, Wares. But-the Cu- 
Horn, or Humour, of Luxury and Ex- 
pence, cannot ftop at certain Bounds : 
What begins in Native will proceed in 
Foreign Commodities : And though 
rhe Example arife amon-g idle Ferfons, 
yet the Imitation will run into all De- 
grees, even of thofe Men by whofeln- 
duftry the Nation fubfifts- And befides, 
the more of our own we fpend, the 
Icfs we fliall have to fend abroad-, and 
io it will come to pafs, that while we 
drive a vaft Trade, yet, by buying 
much more than we fell, we (liall 
come to be poor: Whereas when we 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. VL of their Trade. 235 

drove a very fmall Traffick abroad^ 
yet by felling fo much more than we 
bought, we were very rich in propor- 
tion to our Neighbours. This appeared 
in Eduard the Third's time, when we 
maintained fo mighty Wars in France^ 
and carry'd our victorious Arms into 
the Heart of Spain : Whereas, in the 
28th Year of that King's Reign, the 
Value, and Cuftom, of all our Ex- 
ported Commodities , amounted to 
294184/. — ly s, — 2 d. And that of 
Imported, but to 3 85)70/. — o^s, — 6d, 
Soy as there mufl have enter'd that Year 
into the Kingdom in Coin, or Bullion, 
(^or elfe have grown a Debt to the Na- 
tion) 25'f2i4/ — 13 J. — Sd. And yet 
we then carry 'd out onr Wools un- 
wrought, and brought in a great part 
of our Cloaths from Flanders. 

Another common Maxim is^ That if^ 
by any Foreign Invafion, or Servitude, 
the State, and confequently the Trade, 
of Holland,^ fliould be ruin'd, the laft 
would of courfe fall to our fliare in 
England. Which is no confequence : 
For it would certainly break into fe- 
veral pieces, and fliift, either to us, to 
Flanders^ to the Hans Towns^ or any 
other PartS; according as the niofl: of 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

^ J ^ of their Trade. Chap. YL 

diofe Circumftances (hould any where 
concur to invite it, (^and the likeft to 
fuch,} as appear to have formerly 
drawn it into Holland^ by fo mighty a 
Confluence of People, and fo gene- 
ral a Vein of Induftry and Parfimony 
among them. And whoever pretends 
to equal their Growth in Trade and 
Riches, by other ways than ffuch as 
are already enumerated, will prove, I 
doubt, either to deceive, or to be de^ 

A Third i^y That if that State were 
reducM to great Extremities, fo as to 
become a Province to fome greater 
Power, they would cliufe our Subje- 
ftion rather than any other ; or thofe, 
at lead:, that are the Maritime, and 
the richeft of the Provinces. But it 
will be more rcafonably concluded, 
from dl the former Diicourfcs, That 
though they may be divided by ab- 
folute Conqueds, they will never, di- 
vide themfelves by confcnt, but all fall 
one way, and, by common Agreement, 
jUake the beft Terms they can for their 
Country, as a Province, if not as a 
State: And before they come to fuch 
an Extremity, they will firft feek to be 
admitted, as a i5(f^/V- Circle, in the 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. VI. Of their Trade. 1 3 7 

Empire (which they were of old 5} and 
thereby receive the Proteftion of that 
Mighty Body, which, (as far as great 
and fmaller things may be compared} 
leems the likeft their own State in its 
main Conftitutions, but efpecially in 
the Freedom or Sovereignty of the Im- 
perial Cities. And this I have often 
feeard their Minifters fpeak of, as their 
laft Refuge, in cafe of being threatened 
by too ftrong and fatal a Conjun- 

And if this fhould happen> the Trade 
of tht Provinces would rather be pre- 
ferv'd or encreas'd, than any way bro- 
ken or deftroy'd by fuch an Alteration 
of their State, becaufe the Liberties of 
tiie Country would continue what they 
are, and the Security would be greater 
than now it is. 

The laft I will mention is of another 
Vein > That if the Prince of Orange were 
made Soveraign of their Country, tho' 
by Foreign Arms, he would be a great 
Prince, becaufe this now appears to 
be fo great a State< Whereas, on the 
contrary, thofe Provinces would foon 
become a very mean Country. For 
fuch a Power muft be maintained by 
Force, as it would be acquired, and as 


Hosted by Google 

l^S of their Trade. Chap. VL 

indeed all abfolute JDominion muft be 
in thofe Provinces. This would raifc 
general Difcon tents > and thofe perpe- 
tual Seditions among the To wns^ which 
would change the Orders of the Coun- 
rry, endanger the Property of Private 
Men, and (hake the Credits and Safety 
of the Government : Whenever this 
fhould happen, the People would fjat- 
rcr, Induftry would faint. Banks would 
diffolvc^ and Trade would decay to fuch 
adegree^ as probably, incourfeof time, 
their very Digues would be no longer 
maintained by the Defences of a weak 
People againft fo furious an Invader 5 
but the Sea would break in upon their 
Land, and leave their chiefefl Cities 
ro be Fi(her-Towns, as they were of 

Without any fuch great Revoluti- 
ons, I am of opinion, That Trade has, 
for fome Years ago, paft its Meridian, 
and begun fenfibly to decay among 
them: Whereof there feem to be fe- 
vcral Caufes 3 as firf!:, the general 
Application, that fo many other Nati- 
ons have made to it, within thefe two 
or three and twenty Years. For iince 
the Peace of Miinjier^ which reftorcd 
the Quiet of Chriftendom in 1648, 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. VI. of their Trade. % 3 ^ 

not only Sue den and "Denmarki but 
France and England^ have more parti- 
cularly, than ever before, buficd the 
Thoughts and Counfels of their feverai 
Governments, as well as the Humours 
of their People, about the matters of 

Nor has this happened without good 
degrees of Succcfsj though Kingdoms 
of fuch Extent, that have other and 
Nobler Foundations of Greatnefs, can- 
not raife Trade to fuch a Pitch as this 
little State, which had no other to 
build upon J no more than a Man, who 
has a fair and plentiful Eftatc, can fall 
to Labour and Induftry, like one that 
has nothing elfc to truft to for the 
fupport of his Life. But however, all 
thele Nations have come of late to 
rtiare largely with them ^ and there 
feem to be grown too many Traders 
for Trade in the World, fo as they 
can hardly live one by another. As 
in a great populous Village, the firll 
Grocer, or Mercer, that fets up among 
them, grows prefently rich, having all 
the Cuftom •, 'till another, encouraged 
by his Suceefs, comes to fet up by bini, 
and fliare in his Gains-, at length fo 
many fall to the Trade, that nothing is 


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i 4 ^ ^/ f^^^^ TraJe. Chap, VL 

got by its and fome muft give oVer> or 
all muft break. 

Not many Ages paft, Venice ^itidFlo-^ 
rence pollefs'd all the Trade o^ Europe i 
the laft by their Manufadtures > but 
the iirft by their Shipping : And the 
whole Trade of "Perjia and the Indiesy 
whofe Commodities were brought 
(Thofe by Land^ and Thefe by the 
Arabtan'^ti^^ .to Egypt:, from \Vhence 
they were fetched by the ^^/<?r/^;^ Fleets, 
and difperfed into moft of the parts of 
Europe: And in thofe Times we find 
the whole Trade of England was dri- 
ven by Venetians^ Florentines^ and 
Lombards, The EaJlerfitigSy who were 
the Inhabitants of the Ha?2S-To\vns^ 
as T>antzaC:, Lubeick^ Hamburgh-^ and 
others upon that Coaft 5 fell next 
into Trade, and managed all that of 
thefe Northern parts for many Years, 
and brought ic firft down to B^uges^ 
and from rhenee xo Antwerp, The firit 
Navigations of the Tortuguefes to the 
EafiJndies broke the Greatnefs of the 
Venetian Trade, and drew it to Lisbon: 
And the Revolt of the Netherlands^ 
that of Antwerp to Holland, But in 
all this time^ the other and greater 
Nations o^ Europe concern'd themfelve's 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

Ghap, VL Of their Trader 241 

little in it 5 their Trade was War ^ 
their Counfels and Enterprifes were 
bufied in the Quarrels of the Half 
Landy or in thofe between the Popes 
and the Emperors, (^both of the fame 
Forge, engaging all Chriftian Princes, 
and ending m the greatnefs of the Ec- 
ciefiaftical State throughout Chriften- 
dorn :} Sometimes in eb. mighty Wars 
between England and France^ between 
France and Spain : The more general, 
between Chriftians and Turks y or more 
particular Quarrels between lefTer and 
neighbouring Princes. In fliort, the 
Kingdoms and Principahties were in 
the World like the Noblemen and 
Gentlemen in a Country •, the Free- 
States and Cities, like the Merchants 
and Traders : Thefe at firft dcfpis'd 
by the others •, the others ferv'd and 
rever'd by them^ 'till by the various 
courfe of Events in the World, fome 
of thefe came to grow Rich and Pow- 
erful by Induflry and Parfimony j and 
fome of the others, Poor by WAar and 
by Luxury: Which made the Traders 
begin to take upon them, and carry it 
like Gentlemen > and the Gentlemen 
begin to take a fancy of falling to 
Trade. By this fliort account it will 

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Z4^ of their Trade. Chap.VL 

appear no wonder^ either that particu- 
lar Places grexy fo Rich, and fo Migh« 
ty, while they alone enjoyed aimoft 
the general Trade of the World j nor 
why not only the Trade in Hollandi 
but the Advantage of it in general, 
ihould feem to be leflen'd by to many 
that fliare it. 

Another Caufe of its Decay in that 
State, may be, that, by the mighty 
Progrefs of their Eafl-India Company^ 
the Commodities of that Country 
are grown more than thefe parts of 
the World can take ofFj and confe- 
quently, the Rates of them muft needs 
be lericned, while the Charge is en- 
creas'd by the great Wars, the Armies, 
and Forts, ncceflary to maintain, or ex« 
tend, the Acquifitionsof that Company, 
in the Indies, For, inftead of Five, or 
Six, E^fi'India Ships, which ufed to make 
the Fleet of the Year, they are now 
rifen to Eighteen or Twenty, (I think 
Two and Twenty came in one Year to 
the United "Trovinces?) This i^ the rea« 
fon, why the particular Perfons of that 
Company v\ Holland^ make not fo 
great Advantage of the fame Stock, as 
thofe of ours do in England *y though 
their Company be very much richerii 


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chap. Vt Of their Trade. 14. j 

and drives a far greater Trade than 
oursj which is exhaulled by no Charge 
of Armiesy or Forts, or Ships of War : 
And this is the Reafon, that the "Dutch 
are forced to keep fo long and (o much 
of thofe Commodities m their Maga- 
zines here, and to bring them out, 
only as the Markets call for them^ or 
are able to take off 5 and why they 
bring (o much lefs from the Indies^ 
than they were able to do^ if th:re 
were Vent enough here : As I remem- 
ber, one of their Sea-men^ newly land- 
ed out of their E aft- India Fleets in the 
Year 65?^ upon Difcourfe in a Boat be- 
tween Delf arid Leyden^ faid, he had 
feen, before he came away, thtec heaps 
of Nutmegs burnt at a time, each of 
which was more than a fmall Church 
could hold, which he pointed ac in a 
Village that was in fight. 

Another Caufe niay be, the great 
cheapnefs of Corn, which has been 
for thefe Dozen Years, or more, gene- 
ral in ;ill thefe Parrs of Europe^ and 
which has a very great Influence upom 
the Trade of Holland, For a great 
Vent o^ Indian Commodities, (^at leaft 
the Spices which are the grofs of them} 
ufed ro be made into the Northern 
\ R t part« 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 


244 of their Trade. Chap.VL 

parts of Europe^ in Exchange for Corp^ 
while it was taken off at good rates 
by the Markets of Flanders^ England^ 
France^ Spain^ or Italy ; in all which 
Countries it has of late Years gone fo 
low? as to difcourage the Import of fo 
great Quantities, as ufed to come from 
^Poland and Truffiay and other parts of 
the North. Now the lefs Value thofe 
Nations receive for Corn, the lefs they 
are able to give for Spice, which is a 
great Lofs to the Stitch on both fides, 
leflening the Vent of their Indian Ware 
in the Northern, and the Traffick of 
Corn in the Southern parts. The caufe 
of this great cheapnefs of Corn feems 
no be, not fo much a courfe of plenti- 
ful and feafonable Years, as the gene- 
ral Peace that has been in Europe fince 
the Year 59 or 60 > by which fo many 
Men and fo much Land have been 
turned to Husbandry, that were before 
employed in the Wars, or lay wafted 
by them in all the Frontier-Provinces 
of France and Spain^ as well as through- 
out Germany i before the Peace of Mun- 
Jter s and in England^ during the Afti- 
ons or Confequences of a Civil War : 
And Plenty grows not to a height, 
but by the Succeflion of fever al peace- 

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chap. VI. Of their Trade. 2.45 

fill, as well as feafonable, Years. 
The laft Claufe I will mention, is, 
the mighty Enlargement of the City of 
Amfierdam, by that which is called the 
New Town; the Extent whereof is 
fo <bacious, and the Buildings of fo 
much greater Beauty and Coft than 
the Old, that it muft have employ'd a 
vaft Proportion of that Stock which 
in this City was before wholly turned 
to Trade. Befides there feems to have 
been growing on for thefe later Years, 
a greater Vie of Luxury and Expence 
among many of the Merchants of that 
Town, than was ever formerly known : 
Which was obferved and complained 
of, as well as the Enlargement of their 
City, by fome of the wifeft of their 
Minifters, while I refided among them, 
who defigned fome Regulations by 
Sumptuary Laws > as knowing the 
very Foundations of their Trade 
would foon be undermined, if the ha- 
bitual Induftry, Parfimony, and Sim- 
plicity of their People, came to be 
over-run by Luxury, Idlenefs, and Ex- 
cefs. However it happcn'd, I found it 
agreed by all the moft diligent and cir- 
cumfpeft Enquiries I could make, that 
in the Years dp and 70, there was 
R 3| hardly 

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xj^6 Of their T^ade. Chap.VL 

hardly any Foreign Trade among them 
befides that of the Indies j by which 
the Traders made the Returns of their 
Mony 5 without Lofs y and none, by 
which the common Gain was above 
Two or Three in the Hundred. So, a§ 
it feems to be with Trade, as with the 
Sea, (its Element,) that has a certain 
pitch, above which it never rifes in the 
higheft Tides 5 and begins to Ebb, as 
foon as ever it ceafes to Flow ^ and 
ever Iqfes ground in one place,^ pro- 
portionably to what ;t gains in ano- 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 



of their Forces and Revenues. 

np^HE Strength, and Forces, of a 
JL Kingdom, or State, were meafu- 
red, in former Ages, by the Numbers of 
Native and Warlike Subjefts, which 
they could draw into the Field, upon 
any War with their Neighbours. Na- 
tional Quarrels were decided by Nati- 
onal Armies, not by Stipendiary For- 
ce's, (raifed with Mony, or maintained 
by conftant Fay.} In the feveral King- 
doms and Principalities of Europe^ the 
Bodies of their Arinies were compo- 
fed, as they are ftill in Tolandy of the 
Nobility and Gentry, who were bound 
to attend their Princes to the Wars, 
with certain Numbers of Armed Men^ 
according to the Tenure and Extent of 
the feveral Lordfhips, and Lands, they 
held of the Crown : Where thefe were 
not proportionable to the Occafion^ 
the reft were made up of Subjefts 
drawn together by Love of their Prince^ 
R 4 or 

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^4* Of their Forces Chap.VlL 

or their Country : By defire of Con- 
queft and Spoils, or neceility of De- 
fence; Held together by Allegiance op 
Religion J and fpirited by jHonour, 
Revenge, or Avarice ("not of what they 
could gut fiom their Leaders^ but from 
their Enemies,} A Battel or TwOj 
fairly fought, decided a War •, and a 
War ended the Quarrel of an Age, 
and either loft or gain'd the Caufe or 
Country contended for : 'Till the 
change of Times and Accidents brought 
it xo a new Decilion > 'till the Virtues 
and Vices of Princes made them 
ftronger or weaker, either in the Love 
^nd Obedience of their People, or in 
fuch Orders and Cuftoms as rendered 
their Subjefts more or lefs Warlike or 
Effeminate, Standing- Forces or Guards 
in conftant Pay, were no where us'd 
by lawful Princes in their Native or 
Hereditary Countries, but only by 
Conquerors in fubdued Provinces, or 
Ufurpers at home ^ and were a De- 
fence only againft Subjefts, not againft 

Thefe Orders feem firft to have been 
changed in Europe by the Two States 
of Venice and Holland: Both of them 
fmgll in Territories a? Land, and thofe 


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Ghap. VII. and Revenues. ^45> 

extended in Frontier upon powerful 
Neighbours •, both of them weak in 
number of Native Subjefts > and thofe 
lefs warlike at Land, by turning fo 
much to Traffick> and to Sea: But 
both of them mighty in Riches and 
Trade •, which made them endeavour 
to balance their Neighbours Strength 
in Native Subjects, by Foreign Stipen- 
diary Bands : and to defend their 
Frontiers by the Arts of Fortification, 
and Strength of Places, which might 
draw out a War intp length by Sieges, 
when they durft not venture it upon 
a Battel-, and fo make it many times 
determine by force of Mony, rather 
than of Arms. This forced thofe Prin- 
ces, who frontier^ upon thefe States, 
to the fame Provifions> which have 
been encreasM by the perpetual courfe 
of Wars, upon the Continent of Eu- 
rope^ ever fmce the Rife of this State, 
until tli.e Peace o^t\i&Tirenees^ between 
Princes bordering one upon the other \ 
and fo, ready for fudden Inroads orln- 

The Force therefore of thefe Pro- 
vinces is to be meafur'd, not by the 
Number or Difpofitions of their Sub- 
lets, but by the Strength of their Ship- 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

25 P Of their Forces Chap, VIL 

ping, and ftanding-1 roops, which they 
conilantly maintain, even in time of 
Peace i and by the Numbers of both, 
which they have been able to draw 
into the Field, and tq Sea, for Support 
of a War: By their conftant Revenue 
to maintain the firft^ and by the tem- 
porary Charge, they have been able to 
furnifli, for Supply of the other. 

I will not enumerate their Frontier 
Towns, (which ^s ^ comrnqn Theme,} 
or the Forces neceflary for the Garri- 
fons of them. Nor che Nature and Va- 
riety of their Taxes and Impofitions, 
though I have an exaft Lift of them by 
mc, expreffing the feveral Kinds, Rates, 
and Proportions, upon every Province 
and Town: But this would fwell a Dit 
courfe, with a great deal of tedious 
matter, and to little purpofe. I ftiall 
therefore be content only to obferve, 
what I have informed my felf of their 
Forces, and Revenues in general, from 
Perfons among them, the beft able tQ 
give that Account. 

The ordinary Revenue of this State 
confifts, either in what is levied in the 
conquered Towns, and Country of 
Brabanty Flanders ^ qr thtRkine^ which 
is wholly adminxfter'd by the Council 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. VII. and Revenues, ij i 

pf State: Or elfe, the ordinary Fonds, 
which the Seven Provinces provide 
every Year according to their feveral 
Proportions, upon the Petition of the 
Council of State, and Computation of 
the Charge of the enfuing Year> gtven 
in by them to the States- General. And 
this Revenue commonly amounts to 
about one and twenty MilHpns of Gil- 
ders a Year > every Million making a- 
bout Ninety Thoufand Pounds Sterling-^ 
intrinfick Vdue. 

The chief Fonds out of which this 
rifeSj) is, the Excife and the Culloms : 
The firft is great, and fo general, that 
I have heard it obferv'd at Amfterdam-i 
That when in a Tavern, a certain Difh 
of Fifli is eaten with the ufual Sawce, 
above Thirty feveral Excifes are paid, 
for what is necellary to that fmall 
Service. The laft: are low and eafie, 
and apply 'd particularly to the Admi« 

Out of this Revenue is fupply'd the 
Charge of the whole Milice, of all Pub- 
lick Officers of the State, aaid Ambaf. 
fadors, .or Minifters abroad,- and the 
Intereft of about Thirteen Millions ow-^ 
ing by the States- General, 
^\i^ Standing- Forces in the Year 70, 


Hosted by Google 

^S^ of their Forces Chap, VII. 

upon fo general a Peace, and after all 
Reformations, were Twenty $ix Thou- 
fand Two Hundred Men, in Ten Regi- 
ments of Horfe, confifting of Fifty 
Troops •, and Nineteen of Foot, con- 
fifting of Three Hundred and Eighty 
Companies. The conftant charge of 
thefe Forces flood them in Six Millions 
One Hundred and Nineteen Thoufand 
Gilders a Year. 

Their Admiralties, in time of Peace, 
maintain between Thirty and Forty 
Men of War, employed in the feveral 
Convoys of their Merchants Fleets, in 
a Squadron of Eight or Ten Ships to 
attend the Algertnes and other Cor fairs 
in thcMediterraneam and fome always 
lying ready in their Havens for any 
fudden Accidents or Occafions of the 
State. The common Expence of the 
Admiralties in this Equipage, and the 
Built Qf Ships, is about Six Millions a 

Belides the Debt of the Generalty, 
the Province of Holland owes about 
Sixty Five Millions, for which they pay 
Intereft at Four in the Hundred 5 but 
with fo great Eafe and Exadncfs both 
in Principal and Intereft, that no Man 
ever demands it twice ^ they might 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

chap. VII- and Revenues. 15 j 

take up whatever Mony they defir*d. 
Whoever is admitted to bring in his 
Mony^ takes it for a great deal of Fa- 
tour > and when they pay off any 
part of the Principal, thofe, it belongs 
to, receive it with Tears, n6t knowing 
how to difpofe of it to Intereft, with 
fuch Safety and Eafe. And the com- 
mon Revenue of particular Men lies 
much in the Cantores, either of the Ge- 
nerality, or the fevcral Provinces, which 
arc the Rcgiftries of thefe publick 

Of the feveral Impofts and Excifes> 
thofe that are upon certain, and immo- 
vable PofTeflions (as Houfes and Lands} 
are collefted by the Magiftratcs of the 
feveral Places, and by them paid in to 
the Receivers, becaufe both the Num- 
ber and Value of them are conftant, 
and ealily known. Thofe which arife 
out of uncertain Confumptions, arc all 
fet out to F'arm 3 and to him that bids 
moft, fome every Three Months, fome 
every Six, and fome yearly. 
y The Colledion, Receipt and Diftri- 
bution of all Publick Monies, are 
made, without any Fee to Officers, 
who receive certain conftant Salaries 
from th^ State, which they dare not 


Hosted by VjOOQIC 

i5 4 ^/ their Forces Chap, VIL 

encreafe by any private Pradices, or 
Extortions: So, whoever has a Bill of 
any publick Debt, has fo much ready 
Mony in his Goffers^ being paid cer- 
tainly at call, without charge or trou- 
ble ^ and aiTign'd over in any Payment^ 
like the beft Bill of Exchange. 

The extraordinary Revenue is, when 
upon fome great Occafions, or Wars^ 
the Generahty agrees to any extraor- 
dinary Gonrributions : As fometimes 
the Hundredth Penny of the Eftates of 
all the Inhabitants $ Pole, or Ghimney- 
mony ^ or any other Sublidies, and 
Payments, according as they can agrees 
and the Occafions require 5 which have 
fometime reached fo far, as cveh to an 
Impofition upon every Man that tra- 
vels in the common Ways of their 
Gountry, by Boat, or in a Goach> in 
Wagon, or on Horfeback. 

By all thefe means, in the firft Year 
of the Englifh War, in 1665-, there 
were raifed in the Provinces, Forty 
Millions, of which Twenty Two in the 
Province of Holland, And upon the 
Biflhop o^ Munjler's invading them, at 
the fame time by Land, they had in 
the Year 6(5, above Thrcefcore Thou- 
fand Land-men in Pay ^ and a Fleet 

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Chap.VIL and Reofemes. 255 

of above an Hundred Men of War at 

The Greatiiefs of this Nation, at that 
time, feems juftly to have rais'd the 
Glory of ours 5 which, during the 
Years 6f and 66^ maintained a War, 
not only againft this Powerful State^ 
but againft the Crowns of France and 
^enmarky in Conjundion with them : 
And all, at a time> when this King- 
dom was forced to ftruggle at home 
with the calamitous Effefts of a rag- 
ing Plague, that, in Three Months of 
the firft Year, fwept away incredible 
numbers of People ^ and of a prodi«^ 
gious Fire, that, in Three Days of the 
fccond, laid in Afhes that Ancient and 
Famous City of LONT>ON, (the 
Heart and Center of our Commerce 
and Richesj) confiiming the greateft 
part of its Buildings, and an im« 
menfe Proportion of its Wealth. Yet, 
in the midft of thefe fatal Accidents^ 
thofe Two Summers were renowned 
with Three Battels of the mightieft 
Fleets that ever met upon the Ocean ^ 
whereof Two were determined by 
entire and unqueftion'd Vidories, and 
Purfuit of our Enemies into their 


Hosted by Google 

z$6 6f their Forces Chap. VlL 

very Havens. The Third having be-^ 
gun by the unfortunate Divifion of 
our Fleet, with the odds of Ninety 
of their Ships againfl: Fifty of ours> 
and, in fpight of fuch Difadvanta- 
ges, having continued, or been re- 
newed for Three Days together (^where- 
in we were every Morning the Ag- 
greflbrs,} ended at laft by the equal 
and mutual Weaknefs and Wearinefs 
of both Sidesi the Maims of Ships 
and TackHng, with Want of Powder 
and Ammunition : Having left unde- 
cided the greateft Adion that wilt 
perhaps appear upon Record of any 
Story. And in this Battel, Monfieur 
de JVit confefs'd to me^ That we 
gained more Honour to our Nation, 
and to the invincible Courage of our 
Sea-men, than by the other Two Vi- 
ftories. That he was fure, their Men 
could never have been brought on the 
two following Days, after the Difad- 
vantages of the firftj and he believed 
no other Nation was capable of it, but 

I will not judge, how we came to 
fail of a glorious Peace in the Six 
Months next fucceeding, after the 


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Chap. VI L and Re'venues. I x| 7 

fortune of our laft Victory, and with 
the Honour of the War: But as 
ahy rough Hand can break a Bone^ 
whereas much Art and Care are requi- 
red to fet it again, and reftore it to 
its firft Strength and Proportion: So 
^tis an eafic part in a Minifter of 
State, to engage a War ^ but 'tis gi- 
ven to few to know the Times, and 
find the Ways, of making Peace. Yec 
when after the fcnfible Events of an 
unfortunate Negligence, an indiffe- 
rent Treaty was concluded at Bredci 
in 67 J within Six Months following^ 
by an Alliance with this State m 
January^ 1668. (which was receiv'd 
with incredible Joy and Applaufc 
among them,} His Majefty became 
the unqueftioned Arbiter of all the 
Affairs of Chriftendom j made a Peace 
between the two Great Crowns, at 
Aix4a-Chapelle^ which was avowed 
by all the World, to be perfedly His 
Own 5 and was received with equal 
Applaufe of Chriftian Princes abroad, 
and of his Subjefts at home 5 and 
for Three Years fucceeding, by the 
ilnfliaken Alliance and Dcpendance of 
the United States, His Majefty re- 
S maincd 

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%$% of their Porces, &q Ckap. Vll. 

toained Abfolute Maftcr of the Peace 
of Chriftendoiii, and in a Pofture of 
giving Bounds to the greateft, as well 
as Protedion to the weakeft, of his 

C H A P. 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 


7f)e Caufes of their Fall, in i6jii 

IT muft be avowed^ That as This 
State, in the Courfe and Progrefs of 
ics Greatnefs for fo many Years pad, 
has (hined like a Cornet^ fo in the, 
Revolutions of this laft Summer, It 
fecm*d to fall like a Meteori and has 
equally amazed the World by the one 
and the other: When we coniider 
fuch a Power and Wealth, as was re- 
lated in the laft Chapter, to have 
fallen in a manner proftrate within the 
fpace of One Month: So many Fron- 
tier Towns, renowned in the Sieges 
and Adions of the Spanijh Wars, en- 
tered like open Villages by the French 
Troops, without Defence or almoft De« 
nial: Moft of them without any Blows 
at all, and all of them with fo few : 
Their great Rivers, that were eftcem- 
ed an invincible Security to the Pro« 
vinces of Holland and Utrecht^ pafTed 
with as much Eafe, and as fmall Refift- 
S % zxic^^i 

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icio The Caufes of Chap. VIlL 

ances, as little Fords : And in (hort, 
the very hearts of a Nation fo valiant 
df old againft Romej fo obftinatc againft 
Sj^aitty now fubdued, and^ in a man- 
ner, abandoning all before their Dan- 
ger appeared : Wc may juftly have our 
Recourfe to the fecret and fixed periods 
of all Human Grcatnefs, for the Ac- 
count of fuch a Revolution : Or rather, 
to the unfearchable Decrees, and irrcfi- 
flible Force, of Divine Providence j 
though it fccms not more impious to 
queftion it, than to meafure it by our 
Scale J or reduce the IfTues and Moti- 
ons of that Eternal Will and Power, to 
a Conformity with what is efteemed 
Juft, or Wile, or Good, by the ufual 
Confentj or the narrow Comprthenfion 
of poor Mortal Men. 

But, as in the fearch, and confidcra- 
tion, even of things i>atural and com- 
mon, our Talent, I fear, is to Talk 
rather than to Know, fo we may be 
allowed to Enquire and Reafon upon 
all things, while we do not pretend 
to Certainty, or call that Undeniable 
Truth, which is every Day deny'd by 
Ten Thoufand > nor thofe Opinions 
Unreafonable, which we know to be 
held by fuch, as we allow to be Rea« 


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chap- VIIL their Fall iniCji. tci 

fonable Men, I (hall therefore {tt down 
fuch Circumftances, avS to mefeemmoft 
evidently to have confpired in this Re- 
volution J leaving the Caufes lefs difcer- 
nible, to the fearch of more discerning 

And firft, I take their vaft Trade, 
which was an Occafion of their Great- 
nefs, to have been One likewifc of 
their Fall, by having wholly diverted 
the Genius of their Native Subjefts, 
and Inhabitants, from Arms, to Traf- 
fick, and the Arts of Peace j leaving 
the whole Fortune of their later Wars> 
to be managed by Foreign and Mer- 
cenary Troops i which much abafed 
the Courage of their Nation, (^as was 
obferved m another Chapter,) and 
made the Burghers of fo Uttle moment 
towards the Defence of their Towns j 
whereas in the famous Sieges of Har- 
lemy Alcmary and Leyden^ They had 
made fuch brave and fierce Defences, 
as broke the Heart of the Spamjh Ar- 
mies, and the Fortune of their Af- 

Next, was the Peace of Munjiety 

which had left them now, for above 

Twenty Years, too fecure of all Inva* 

fions, or Enemies at Land > and fo 

S 3 turned 

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1,6% TheCaufesof Chap.VIIL 

turned their whole Apphcation to the 
Strength qf their Forces at Seaj which 
have been fince exereifed with two En- 
glijh Wars in that time> and enhvened 
with the fmall yearly Expeditions into 
the Streights againft the Algertnesy and 
other Cor fairs of the Mediterranean. 

Another was, their too great Parfi- 
mony, in Reforming fo many of their 
bed Foreign Officers and Troops, up- 
on the Peace of Munjier -y whofe Va-. 
lour and Conduft had been fo great 
Occafions of inducing Spain to the 
Counfels and Cpnclufions of that 

But the greateft of all others, that 
croncurr'd to weaken, and indeed breaks 
the ftrength of their Land-Mihce, wass 
the Alteration of their State, which 
happened by the Terpettial EdiB of 
Holland and Weft-Friezland^ upon the 
Death of the laft Prince of Orange^ 
for Exclufion of the Power of Stadt- 
holder in their Province, or 2t leaft 
the Separation of it from the Charge 
of Captain-General. Since that time, 
the main De/ign and Application of 
thofe Provinces, has been, to work out, 
by degrees, all the old Officers, both 
Native and Foreign^ who had been 


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Chap.VIIL their Fall ini6yu z^5 

formerly Sworn to thcFrinccofOrange^ 
and were ftill thought afFeftionatc ro 
the Intercft of that Family j and to fill 
the Commands of their Army, with the 
Sons, or Kinfmen, of Burgomafters, 
and other Officers, or Deputies in the 
State, whom they efteem'd fure to the 
Conftitutions of their Popular Govern- 
ment, and good enough for an Age, 
where they faw no Appearance of Ene- 
my at Land to attack 'em. 

But the Humour of Kindnefs to the 
young Prince, both in the People, and 
Army, was not to be diflblved, or dif- 
perfed, by any Medicines, or Operati- 
ons, either of Rigour or Artificer but 
grew up infenfibly, with the Age of the 
Prince, ever prefaging fome Revolu- 
tion in the State, when he fhould 
come to the Years of afpiring, and ma- 
naging the general Aflfedions of the 
People J being a Prince, who joined 
to the great Qualities of his Royal 
Blood, the popular Virtues of his 
Country j Silent and Thoughtful 5 giv- 
en to Hear, and to Enquire j of a 
found and fteady Underftanding •, much 
Firmnefs in what he once refolves, or 
once denies 5 great Induftry and Appli^ 
cation to his Bufinefsj little to his 
S 4 ^Ica^ 

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t6'4 ^^^ (^^^fi^ of Chap. VIIL 

Pleafufcsj Piety in the Religion pf 
his Country, but with Charity to o- 
thers -, Temperance unufual to his 
Youth, and to the CUmatej Frugal in 
the common management of his For- 
tune, and yet Magnificent upon Occa- 
fion •, of great Spirit and Heart, a- 
fpiring to the Glory of Military Ani- 
ons, witti flrong Ambition to grow 
Great, but richer by the Service, than 
the Servitude, of hi:s Country. In (hdrt, 
A Prince of many Virrues, without any 
appearing mixture of Vice. 

In the Engliflo War, begun the Year 
6f . the States disbanded all the Engltjh 
Troops that were then left in their Ser- 
vice, difperfing the Officers and Soldi- 
ers of our Nation, who ftaid with them, 
into other Companies, or Regiments, of 
their own. After the French Invafion 
of Flanders^ and the ftridt Alliance 
between England and Hollayid in 68. 
they did the fame by all the French 
that were remaining in their Service. 
So as the feveral Bodies of thefe twq 
Nations, which had ever the greateft 
part in the Honour and Fortune of 
their Wars^ were now wholly difTolv'd, 
xn^ their ftanding-Milice compofed in 
•anicinnerj ail of their own. Natives, 


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chap. VIII. their Fall m i ^72- 2-^5 

enervated by the long Ufes and Arts of 
Traffickj and of Peace. 

But they were too great a Match 
for any of the fmaller Princes their 
Neighbours in Germany h and too fe- 
cure of any Danger from Spatriy by 
the knowledge of their Forces, as well 
as Difpofitioris •, and being ftridly 
Allied both with England and Sueden^ 
in Two feveral Defendve Leagues, and 
in one common Triple Alliance ^ they 
could not forefce any Danger from 
France^ who, they thought, would ne- 
ver have the Courage, or Force, to en- 
ter the Lifts with fo mighty Confede- 
rates 5 and who were fure of a Con- 
Junction, whenever they pleafed, both 
with the Emperor and Spain, 

Befides, they knew that France 
could not attack them, without paf- 
fing through Flanders^ or Ger7nany : 
They were fure Spain would not fuffer 
it through the firft, if they were backed 
in oppofing it, as forefeeing the in- 
evitable Lois o^ Flanders^ upon that of 
Holland: And they could hardly be- 
lieve, the Pallage fliould be yielded by 
a Ger7nan Prince, contrary to the ex- 
prefs Will and Intentions of the Em- 
peror, as well as the common Interefts 


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\66^ The Caufes of Chap. VIII. 

of the Empire : So that they hop'd the 
War would, atlcaft, open in their Neigh- 
bours Provinces, for whofc Defence 
they refolv'd to employ the whole Force 
of their State. And would have m^de 
a mighty Rellftance, if the Quarrel had 
begun at any other Doors, but their 

They could not imagine a Conjun- 
ftion between England and France-^ for 
the Ruin of their State • for, being 
unacquainted with our Conftitutions, 
they did not forefee, how we (hould 
find our Intcreft in it, and meafured 
all States, by that which They efteemed 
to be their Intereft. Nor cpuld they 
believe, that other Princes and States 
o{ Europe wouW fuifcr fuch an Additi^ 
Q'Ci to be made to the Power of France^ 
as a Conqueft of Holland. 

Befides thefe publick Confiderations, 
there were others particular to the 
Fadtions among them: And fome qf 
their Minifters were neither forward 
iior fupple enough to endeavour the 
early breaking, or diverting, fuch Con^ 
junftures, as threatened them ^ becaufe 
they were not without Hopes, they 
might end in renewing their broken 
Mcafures with Fr/?;^r^ i which thofe of 


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Chap.VIIl. theirFalUni^yi. 167 

the Commonwealth-Party were more 
enclin'd to, by forefeeing the Influence 
that their Alliances with England muft 
needs have in time, towards the refto- 
ring of the Prince of Qrange^s Autho- 
rity : And they thought at the word, 
that whenever a pinch came, they could 
not fail of a fafe Bargain in one Mar- 
ket or other, having lo vaft a Treafure 
ready to employ upon any good Occa- 

Thefe Confiderations made them com^ 
mit Three fatal Ovcrfights in their Fo- 
reign Negotiations: For they made 
an Alliance with England^ without en- 
gaging a Confidence and FriendOiip : 
They broke their meafures y^ixhFrancey 
without clpfing new ones with Sj^ain : 
And they reckoned upon the Afliftances 
of Sweden^ and their Neighbour-Princes 
Q^ Germany^ without making them fure 
by Subfidiary Advances, before a War 

Laftly, the Prince of Orange was 
approaching the Two and Twentieth 
Year of his Age, which the States of 
Holland had, iince their Alliance with 
His Majefty in 1668, ever pretended, 
fliould be the time of advancing him 
to the Charge of Captain-General, and 


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i<JS TheCaufesof Chap.VIIL 

Admiral of their Forces, though with- 
out that of Stadtholder. But the nearer 
they drew to this Period, which was 
like to make a new Figure in their 
Government; the more defirous fome 
of their Minifters feemed, either to de- 
chnc, or to reftrain \z. On the other 
lide, the Prince grew confident upon 
the former Promifes, or, at lead, Inti- 
mations, of Holland^ and the concur- 
ring Difpofitions of the other Six Pro-^ 
vinces to his Advancement: And his 
Party, fpirited by their hopes, and the 
great Qualities of this young Prince, 
(^now grown ripe for Adtion, and for 
Enterprize,} refolv'd to bring this point 
to a fudden Decifion •, agamft which, 
the other Party prepared, and united 
all their Defences ; fo, as this ftrong 
Pifcafe, that had been fo long working 
in the very Bowels of the State, feem'd 
juft upon its Crijis ; when a Conjun- 
ftion of Two mighty Kings brought 
upon them a fudden and furious Inva- 
lion by Land and Sea, at the fame time, 
by a Royal Fleet, of above Fourfcorc 
Ships i and an Army, of as manyX^^ou- 
fand Men. 

When the States faw this Cloud rea- 
dy to break upon them, (after a long be« 


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Chap. VIII. Mr Fall in i Cjil U9 

lief, that it would blow over,) they 
began, not only to provide (helter at 
home, with their ufual Vigour > but to 
look out for it abroad, tho' both too 
late. Of the Princes that were their 
Allies, or concerned in their Danger, 
fuch as were far off could not be in 
time •, the nearer were unwilling to 
(hare in a danger they were not enough 
prepared for •, moft were content to Ice 
the Pride of this State humbled ^ fomc, 
the Injuries, they had received from 
them, reveng'd 5 many would have 
them mortify*d, that would not have 
them deflroy'd- and fo all refolv'd to 
leave them to weather the Storm, as 
they could, ^ot ont Campania j which, 
they did not believe, could go far to- 
wards their Ruin, confidering the great- 
nefs of their Riches, number of their 
Force, and Strength of their Places* 

The State, in the mean time, had en- 
creas'd their Troops to Seventy Thou- 
fand Men, and had begun to repair the 
Fortifications of their Frontier Towns: 
But fo great a length of their Coun- 
try lay open to the French Invafion^ 
by the Territories of Colen and Liege ^ 
and to the Bifhop of Munfier^ (their 
inveterate Enemy,} by fVeJf^halia^xhzt 


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i^o TkCaufesof Chap.VllL 

ttiey knew not where to expedt, or 
provide againft, the firft Danger: And 
while they divided their Forces and 
Endeavours towards the fecuring of fd 
many Garrifons, they provided for 
none to any purpofe but Maeftricht ^ 
which the French left behind them, 
and fell in upon the Towns of the 
Rhine^ and the Heart of their Pro- 

Befides, Thofe Miniders, who had 
ilill the Diredion of Affairs, bent their 
chief Application to the Strength and 
Order of their Fleet, rather than of 
their Army: Whether more peeked at 
England than France^ upon the War 
and manner of entring into iX^^ Or, be- 
lieving that a Victory at Sea would be 
the way to a Peace with this Crown ^ 
Or, hoping their Towns would not fall 
fo faft, but that, before Three or Four 
were loft, the Bulinefs at Sea would 
be decided *, Or, perhaps content, that 
fome ill Succeflcs (hould attend the 
Prince of Orange at his firft Entrance 
upon the Command of their Armies, 
and thereby contribute to their Defigns 
of reftaining his Authority^ while they 
were forced to leave him the Name of 
Captain- General This, indeed^ was not 


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Chap.VIIL theirFalliniCji. 171 

likely to fail> confidering the ill Con- 
ftitution of their old Army, the hafty 
Levies of their new, and the height of 
the Faftions now broken out in the 
State^-, which left both the Towns and 
the Troops in fufpence, under whofe 
Banners they fought, and by whofe 
Orders they were to be governed, the 
Prince*Si or the States. 

There happened, at the fame time, aii 
Accident unufual to their Climate,which 
was a mighty Drowth in the Begin- 
ning of the Summer, that left their Wa- 
ters fordable in places, where they us'd 
to be navigable for Boats of greateft 
Burthen, And this gave them more 
Trouble and Diftraftion in the Defence, 
as tiieir Enemies more Facility in the 
PafTage, of thofe great Rivers, which 
were efteem'd no fmall Security of their 

And in this pofturc were the Affairs 
of this Commonwealth, when the War 
brok« out, with thofe fatal Events, that 
muft needs attend any Kingdom, or 
State, where the Violence of a Foreign 
Invafion happens to meet with the di- 
ftrafted eftate of a Domeftick Sedition 
or Difcontent, which, hkc ill Humours 
in a Body, make any fmali Wound dan- 


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ijt ^ The Caufes of Chap. VIlL 

gcfbiis, and a great one mortal. They 
were ftill a great Body, but without 
their ufual Soul > they were a State, 
but it was of the T^ip-united Trovince^. 
Their Towns were without Order 3 
their Burgers without Obedience 5 their 
Soldiers without Difcipline $ and all 
without Heart: Whereas, in all Sieges, 
the Hearts of Men defend the Walls, 
and not Walls the Men : And, indeed, 
it was the Name of England^ joining 
in the Wat againft them^ that brdkc 
their Hearts, arid contributed more to 
the lofs of (o many Towns, arid To 
much Country, than the Armies of 
Munfier^ ot o^ France. So that, upon^ 
all Circumftances coniider*d, it feems 
eafier to give an Account, what it was 
that loft them fo much, than whait 
fav'd them the reft. 

No Man at play ^zts a very great 
Game, either in his own, or another*s. 
Hand, unexpededly loft, but he is apt 
to confider, whether it could have been 
fatted, and how it ought to have been 
play'd. The fame Enquiry will be na- 
tural upon the Fall of this State, and 
very difficult td refolve. 

After the mighty Growth of the 
I French^ and Decay of the Spanifh Power^ 


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chap. VIII. their Fall in i Cyz. 17 j 

which drew on the Jnvafion of Flan- 
ders in 1667. This State had a very 
hard Game to play % either they muft 
fee Flanders wholly loft, and France 
grown to confine upon thcnij (^whom 
they liked as an Ally, but dreaded as 
a Neighbour :} Or elfe, they muft join 
with France to divide Flanders between 
them-, but they knew what it was to 
(hare with the Lion : Or, they muft 
join with Spain to defend Flanders 
againft France^ that is, with their old 
Enemy, againft their old Friend : Or 
laftly. They muft join with England 
for the Defence of Flanders ; neither 
breaking with France^ nor doling with 
Spain J and frame an Arbitrage, but of 
fomething a rough Nature 3 rather prc- 
fcribing than mediating a Peace, and 
threatning a War upon that Crown 
that refused it. 

They chofe the laft, and wifely, as 
all Men thought J but though this Al- 
liance was happily planted, yet it was 
unhappily cultivated, and fo the Fruit 
came to fall, and the Root to wither 
upon the firft change of Seafons, in 
fuch a manner, and to fuch a degree, 
as we have lately feen. Whether they 
could have prevented a Conjundion 
T of 

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i7 4 7he Cjtufes of Chap. VIIL 

of England with Franccy (hall be no 
part of my Subjeft j for I pretend not 
ro know, or to telU^ Secrets of State 5 
and intend thefe, not for the Obferva- 
tions of an Ambaflador, but of a pri- 
vate Man as I am, and fuch as any Gen- 
tleman might eafily have made, who 
had refided above Two Years, as I did, 
in Holland i and had beeil, as I was, a 
little enclinM to obferve. I (hall only 
fay, That the Conjunftion oi England 
with France was to this State, like one 
of thofe Difcafes, which, thePhyficians 
fay, are hard to difcern, while they are 
cafie to cure ^ but when once they 
come to be plainly difcover'd, they arc 
paft remedy. 

But, as Holland had ever defended 
it felf again ft Spaing by England and 
France j fo it ought to have done 
again ft France^ by England and S;[)ainy 
and provided early againft their own 
Danger, as well as that of Flanders^ 
by improving and advancing their Con- 
federate League with England and Sue- 
den^ into a ft rift Defenfive-AUiance 
' withi5)>^/V/, as a Principal in the League. 
And by agreeing with that Crown, to 
furnifh between them fome conftant 
Subfidiary Payments Xo Stteden^ for the 


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chap. VIII- their Fall in 1 6j i, 275 

fupporc of their (landing Forces, even 
in time of Peace. This was the defire 
of Spain^ the fnterelt of all that meant 
to (ecure the Peace of Chriftendom ; 
and the Opinion of fome of the "Dutch 
Minifters, though not of the Chiefeft, 
^till it was too late: And the Omillion 
of this^ was the greateft Fault ever 
committed in their Politicks ^ and pro- 
ceeded in a great meafure from their 
2Lncicnt Animolity to Spain; which:, as 
it was the Beginning, fo," by this Ef- 
fe£t, it almoft prov'd the End of their 

When the War began in the midfl 
of the Conjunctures related, -tis hard 
to fay, what could have defended them : 
But as Men in a Town, threatened with 
a mighty Siege, abandon their Suburbs, 
and flight thofe Out-works which are 
either weak of themfelves, or not well 
defenfible for want of Men •> and re- 
folve only to make good thofe Ports 
which they are able fully to Man, and 
eafily to relieve j bccaufe the lofs of 
every fmall Out-work docs not only 
weaken the Number, but (ink theCou- 
rage, of the Garrifon within. 

So this State, which came to be in 

a manner befieg'd by the mighty and 

T 2 nume- 

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2,y^ The Caufes of Chap. VIII. 

numerous Armies of France and of 
Munjlery ought, in my Opinion, to 
have left themfelyes but Three Out- 
works to maintain > (I mean^ Three Pofts 
Handing without the Lines, that cnclo- 
fcd the main Body of their Provinces:) 
Thefe fliould have htcnMaeJiricht^JVe- 
fel and Co ever den. They (hould have 
flighted all the reft of their places, that 
Isy without thefe upon the Rhtne^ or 
in Overyjfel > and drawn the Men into 
thefe Townsi fo as to have left them 
rathc.r like Camps, than Garrifons ; that 
is, Eight Thoiifand Foot, and Two 
1 houfand Horfe in Maejirkht^ as many 
in JVefel^ and half the number in Coe- 
njerden^ if the place would contain 
them^ if not, they inight have formed 
and fortify'd a Camp, with fomething 
a greater number, upon the next Fafs 
into Friez,land and Groninguen, 

Of the reft of their Horfe, (which 
were, I fuppofe, about FiveThoufand) 
with at leaft Fifteen Thoufand Foot, 
they fliouId have formed a great ftand- 
ing Camp, within their Rivers, feme- 
where r\t2.T Arnhem j fortify'd it with 
Cannon, and all the Art that could bej 
furnifti'd it with the greateft care, and 
plenty of Provifions. The remainder 

; of 

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chap. VIII. their Fall in i6yi, zjy 

of their Infantry would have been 
enough for the reft of their Garrifons ^ 
of which the Towns upon the Ijfely 
T>oesbuYgh^ Zutpheuj i^aventer^ and 
SwoUy \Jon\d have been in a manner 
flankM (tho* at fome diftance} by the 
ftrong Garrifons of Wefel and Coever- 
deny and brcafted by the main Camp. 

If, with this Difpofition of their For^ 
ces, they had provided well for the 
Strength and Defence of Skinkfconcey 
Nimmeguen and Grave^ (which would 
likewife have lain within all the Cover 
of thefe Out-Pofts:} They might, for 
ought I know, have expefted the War 
without loiing the Heart and Steadi, 
nefs of their Counfels, and not without 
probability of making a Defence wor- 
thy the former Grcatnefs and Atchieve- 
ments of their State, 

For a Siege of Maefirkht or Wefel 
(io garrifon'd and refolutcly defended,} 
might not only have amus'd, but en- 
dangered, the French Armies > ^sCoever- 
den might have done that of Munfter. 

The Rcfiftance of one of thefe Towns 
would have encreas'd the Strength of 
all the reft : For the Fortune of Bat^ 
tels, and Sieges, turns upon the Hearts 
of Men, as they are more or lefs capa. 


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278 the Caufes of Chap. VIIL 

ble of general Confidences or Fears, 
which are very much raised by Acci- 
dents and Opinions. It would not 
have been within any common Rules, 
to march fo far into the Country, as 
to attack the Barfe or Bre^a, Ntmme- 
guen or GravCy leaving fuch Camps be- 
hind, as thofe at JVefel znd Maejirichty 
and having fo much a greater before 
them, as that about Arnhem, If any 
of thefe Three Pofts had been ilofl:, yet 
it could not have happened without 
good Conditions, and fo retiring the 
Men to ftrengthen either the more in- 
ward Garrilbns, or the main Camp, 
which would have lain ready to defend 
the PafFcs of their Rivers. And if, at 
the worft, they had failed in this, yet 
the French Army muft afterwardst ei- 
ther have attacked a fortify*d Camp of 
Twenty Thoufand Men, or left fuch an 
Army behind them, when they march'd 
towards Utrecht^ and into the Heart of 
the Provinces > both of which would 
have been Attempts, that, I think, 
have hardly been enterpriz^d with Sue- 
cefs upon any Invafion. 

There feems at leaft fome appear- 
ance of Order and Condud: in this 
Scheme of Defence 5 whereas there 


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chap. VIII. their Fall in i Cj i] ij9 

was none, in theirs : But perhaps the 
greatnefs of the Tempeft from aboard, 
and of the Fadions at home, either 
broke the Heart, or diftradled the Courfc, 
of their Counfels. And befides, fuch 
old Sea-men in fo ftrong a Ship, that 
had weathered fo many Storms without 
lofs, could not but think it hard, to 
throw over- board fo much of their 
Lading before this began. After all, 
I know very well, that nothing is fo 
hard, as to give wife Counfel before 
Events i and nothing fo eafie, as, after 
them, to make wife Reflexions. Many 
things feem true in Reafon, and prove 
falfe in Experience : Many, that are 
weakly confulted, are executed with 
Succefs. Therefore, to conclude, we 
muft all acknowledge, that Wifdom 
and Happincfs dwell with God alone j 
and, among Mortal Men, (both of their 
Perfons and their States,} thofe are 
the wifeft, that commit the feweft Fol- 
lies J and thofe the happieft, that meet 
with the feweft Misfortunes. 


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